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Costas Gavras Talks About Z, 40 Years Later
A riveting action thriller about political assassination at the highest levels, this year marks the 40th anniversary of Z. Not the magazine in front of you, but the Academy Award-winning 1969 film co-written and directed by Costas Gavras (AKA Costa-Gavras) about a Judge (played by Jean-Louis Trintignant) who looks into the death of the Deputy (also referred to as Comrade Z, played by Yves Montand) who was about to give a speech on nuclear disarmament. Deliberately dissident, claiming its intention to resemble the U.S.-backed military coup of Greece in the early 1960s and the events surrounding the assassination of democratic Greek politician Gregoris Lambrakis in 1963, Gavras's film touched a nerve with audiences still reeling from the JFK, RFK, and MLK assassinations.
While Gavras has made many political films—Missing, Music Box, and Amen—his film titled after the banned letter, which was a symbolic reminder that Lambrakis (he) lives on—remains his masterpiece.
ESTHER: Why did you want to make Zin the first place?
GAVRAS: The colonels had just come to power in Greece, overthrowing democracy. Making Z was my way to protest them.
What were your political intentions?
To show they were a pack of fanatic and stupid military men that were foes to democracy.
How successful were you in achieving those goals?
If you consider how successful the film was all over the world—except in dictatorship-ruled countries, which banned my movie—I can say I reached my goals.
Which of the characters in the film do you identify with the most and why?
I identify with the journalist for his passion of seeking the truth and information and with the judge for his passion for justice, which he stands up for at great risk of losing everything.
In Z you combined European political awareness and commitment with the tempo of an American action thriller. What kind of audience did you have in mind?
I never think of the type of audience or whom I am addressing or I should address in my films. I make it, thinking of myself as a spectator and what I feel.
Some on the hard left felt casting stars such as Montand and Trintignant played into the hands of storytelling a la the establishment (namely Hollywood). I know casting stars makes it easier to raise money and fill theater seats, but what else do you say to those "purist" criticisms?
Montand and Trintignant were stars, but they are also actors with great talent. I have always been suspicious about "hard left" or "hard right" and about anything "hard." I keep in mind that Hollywood made great masterpieces in cinema...as it also made bad movies.
The uniforms, popular songs, names, and pictures used in the film are Greek yet the film is in French. What were the reasons behind telling the story in French?
It would have been impossible to make it in Greece. Besides it is also a film with universal appeal. There are no Greek names in the movie. The characters are named by their occupations: the General, the Deputy, the Lawyer, the Doctor, the Colonel, etc. The two murderers' names are Yago and Vago, which are common names. But for the Greek audience, there are, here and there, some signs, such as the beer FIX. We talk about the palace and we show one or two official portraits of the king and the queen. Z...means in Greek "He is still alive" or "he lives."
Why did you have to go to Algeria to get this film made
Because, of course, it was impossible to make the film in Greece. United Artists financed the movie, then refused it. The script was too wordy and they were also scared that all their productions would be banned from Greece.
In an attempt to avoid sentimentality with the character of the Deputy you downplayed some of Lambrakis's other fine attributes (for example he ran a free clinic for the poor). In hindsight are you convinced this was the best decision?
The main issue was to show the political philosophy of Lambrakis, which was disarmament, peace, and democracy in a country where it didn't exist.
Conversely you downplayed the buffoonery of the top military brass and the homosexuality of the killer. Could you talk about your motivations behind those conceits?
Tanks patrol Athens during 1973 uprising
Buffoonery of the top military brass comes from their reality and philosophy. I was convinced they were reactionary and stupid. Then I moderated this thought and just showed them as buffoons. The real killers were like those in the movie: one was economically dependent on the police, the other was a pedophile, so also dependent on police.
The women in Zare few and far between, yet they play pivotal roles in acquiring information and bringing a human dimension to the story. In your later films (Hanna K, Music Box), women play a more prevalent role. Could you give us your thoughts about women in the roles of political discourse—historical, cinematic, or otherwise?
In Z, the role of women was limited by the story itself to the minimum. I suggested relationships with his wife and also the fact that Lambrakis felt attracted to other women. Nowadays women play a more and more important role in politics and I think this is a great hope for society.
Like the assassinations of Trotsky and Kennedy during the same era, the Deputy takes a fatal blow to the head (brain). What does that say about fascism and the state of ideas?
This is a very true statement. Consciously or unconsciously, fascists hit (aim, shoot) the most vulnerable part of man: his head, a place from where his ideas come from—especially when these same ideas condemn fascism.
How do you feel about winning the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film? After all, the AMPAS is a hubbub of middlebrow, reactionary tastes.
It legitimized the film. It was as if Hollywood condemned the Greek colonels while Washington recognized them and was collaborating with them.
After its release many film scholars saw it in relation to the JFK assassination, which, according to what I read, was not on your mind. What does that say about American ethnocentrism, even at the higher-intellectual levels?
This parallelism with the JFK assassination was made because, in both cases, they were young politicians who were breaking with the traditions of old politicians. Z was the only movie telling the story of a real political assassination, not a fictitious one.
Is there anything you find about Z that rings false today?
No. I saw the film a month ago in New York City and I thought there is still a lot of faith in it and that the actors' performances didn't become outdated.
The re-release of the film comes after Bush's reign. Perhaps I am being one of those American ethno-centrists, but what similarities can we draw between America from 2000-2008 and Greece's right-wing establishment in the early 1960s?
There is the same lack of intelligence and generosity to face social and political issues. On a larger scale than Greece, there is the same fanaticism and lack of respect for the human being.
Trial of the Greek junta leaders in 1975
There is considerable talk about investigating the Bush years. While there is much to be said about the matter, I was wondering if you could talk about this in light of the fact that the Examining Magistrate was a right-winger who held honesty above ideology.
Christos Sartzetakis was right wing. That is why he was given this case, but he was also an honest judge who held justice above everything. Concerning Bush, I have a question that can sound naive: Who was running the country? Bush, the poor-minded president, or Cheney, the rich businessperson and vice president?
Although you have made several films since Z, it is still the film you are, overwhelmingly, best known for to this day. How do you feel about that?
I don't want to compare myself to them, but it is a usual phenomenon. Orson Welles is associated with Citizen Kane, Sergei Eisenstein to The Battleship Potemkin, and Francis Ford Coppola to The Godfather.
What do you think about the magazine Z, which took its name from the movie?
It's a magazine of quality. That is why I have responded to your questions in detail. On the other hand, I would never go to the Greek restaurant Z in New York!
What do you think about interviews where you discuss your work? Do they serve the work? Should the work just speak for itself?
The film speaks for itself better than the author who made the work. One can only speak about one's work in a superficial way. It is impossible to explain the feelings and compulsions that lead to the making of a film.
Z Magazine Archive
AnnouncementsLABOR - May 1 is May Day. Workers of the world will celebrate the 124th anniversary of International Worker’s Day. Born out of a call for an 8-hour workday in the United States, this day is an opportunity for all workers to show their solidarity with one another, as well as to renew the call for labor rights.
FARM CONFERENCE - The Farm Conference on Community and Sustainability will be held May 24-26 in Summertown, TN, in partnership with the Fellowship of Intentional Communities. Tour green homes, see sustainable food production, learn about solar installations, alternative education, midwifery, and more.
Contact: Douglas@thefarmcommunity.com; http://www.thefarmcommunity.com/.
PALESTINE - The Conference of the Palestinian Shatat in North American will be held June 3-5 in Vancouver. The conference will examine the future of the Palestinian liberation movement.
Contact: email@example.com; http://www.palestinianconference.org/.
LABOR - The Pacific Northwest Labor History Association’s 45th annual conference will be held May 3-5, in Portland, OR. This year’s theme is Labor Under Attack: Learning from the Past and Preparing for the Future. A call for presentations, workshops and papers is currently underway.
Contact: PNLHA, 27920 68th Ave. East, Graham, WA 98338; 206-406-2604; PNLHA1@aol.com; http://www3.telus.net.
MARIJUANA - On the first Saturday of May marijuana legalization activists will hold informational and educational events, rallies and marches in over 300 cities around the world.
ECONOMICS - The Union For Radical Political Economics will hold its 39th annual conference May 9-11 in New York City.
RECLAIM THE DREAM - The 2013 Poor People’s Campaign & March from Baltimore to Washington D.C. will be May 11. Communities, schools and unions interested in participating are encouraged to contact the Baltimore People’s Assembly.
Contact: 410-500-2168; 410-218-4835; BaltimorePeoplesAssembly@gmail.com; Southern Christian Leadership Conference of Baltimore and the Baltimore Peoples Power Assembly, 2011 N. Charles St., Baltimore, MD 21218.
MOTHER’S DAY - The 17th Annual Mother’s Day Walk For Peace will be May 12th, in Dorchester, MA. The walk began in 1996 for families who had lost children to violence. The day has become a way for thousands of people to financially support the work of the Louis Brown Peace Institute.
Contact: http://www.ldbpeaceinstitute.org/; http://mothersdaywalk4peace.org/.
NATO 5 - An International Week of Solidarity with the NATO 5 has been called for May 16-21. Supports call on supporters to raise awareness of the NATO 5 and support funds for the defendants on the one-year anniversary of their preemptive arrests.
Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org; https://nato5support.wordpress.com.
MOUNTAINTOP - The 2013 Mountain Justice Summer Activist Training Camp will be held May 19-27 in Damascus, VA. It will be a week of workshops, field trips to view Mountain Top Removal coal mines, direct actions, and service project.
FEMINIST SCI-FI - The feminist science fiction convention WisCon 37 is scheduled for May 24-27 in Madison, WI.
Contact: WisCon, ? SF3, PO Box 1624, Madison, WI 53701; email@example.com; http://www.wiscon.info/.
ANARCHY FEST - A month-long Festival of Anarchy is scheduled for May in Montreal. The festival includes The Montreal Anarchist Bookfair (May 19-20).
Contact: http://www.anarchistbookfair.ca/; http://www.radicalmontreal.com/.
LABOR - The International Labor Rights Forum will present: Down the Supply Chain, Driving Corporate Accountability, on May 22 in Washington, DC. The Labor Rights Awards Ceremony and Reception will honor pioneers in supply chain worker organizing, working solidarity and international labor rights policy.
MULTICULTURE - The 26th annual National Conference on Race & Ethnicity in American Higher Education (NCORE) will take place May 28-June 1, in New Orleans.
Contact: SWCHRS, 3200 Marshall Avenue, Suite 290, Norman, OK 73072; 405-325-3694; firstname.lastname@example.org; www.ncore.ou.edu.
MEDIA - The 2013 Alliance for Community Media Annual Conference will be held May 29-31, in San Francisco, CA. Participants will include educators, community leaders, media professionals, journalists, nonprofit leaders, policymakers and students.
RADIO - The 38th Annual Community Radio Conference is schedule for May 29-June 1, in San Francisco, CA, with discussions and workshops.
Contact: 1101 Pennsylvania Ave. NW, Suite 600, Washington, DC 20004; 202-756-2268; email@example.com; http://www.nfcb.org/.
BRADLEY MANNING - On June 1, a rally will be held at Fort Meade in support of Bradley Manning.
BIKES - Bikes Not Bombs is holding its 24th annual Bike-A-Thon and Green Roots Festival in Boston, MA on June 3, with several bike rides scheduled, music, exhibitors and more.
Contact: Bikes Not Bombs, 284 Amory St., Jamaica Plain, MA 02130; 617-522-0222; firstname.lastname@example.org; www.bikesnotbombs.org.
LEFT FORUM - The 2013 Left Forum will be held June 7-9, at Pace University in New York City.
Contact: 365 Fifth Avenue, CUNY Graduated Center, ? Sociology Dept., New York, NY 10016; http://www.leftforum.org/.
VEGAN FEST - Mad City Vegan Fest will be held in Madison, WI, June 8. The annual event features food, speakers, and exhibitors.
Contact: 122 State Street, Suite 405 B, Madison, WI 53701; email@example.com; http://veganfest.org/.
ADC CONFERENCE - The American-Arab Anti-Discrimination Committee (ADC) holds its annual conference June 13-16, in Washington, DC, with panel discussions and workshops on civil rights, media and other topics.
Contact: 1990 M Street, Suite 610, Washington, DC, 20036; 202-244-2990; firstname.lastname@example.org http://convention.adc.org/.
CUBA/SOCIALISM - A Cuban-North American Dialog on Socialist Renewal and Global Capitalist Crisis will be held in Havana, Cuba, June 16-30. There will be a 5 day Seminar at University of Havana, plus visits to a cooperative, urban garden, community development project, social research centers, and educational & medical institutions.
Contact: email@example.com; http://www.globaljusticecenter.org/.
NETROOTS - The 8th Annual Netroots Nation conference will take place June 20-23 in San Jose, CA. The event features panels, trainings, networking, screenings, and keynotes.
Contact: 164 Robles Way, #276, Vallejo, CA 94591; firstname.lastname@example.org; http://www.netrootsnation.org/.
MEDIA - The 15th annual Allied Media Conference will be held June 20-23, in Detroit.
Contact: 4126 Third Street, Detroit, MI 48201; http://alliedmedia.org/.
GRASSROOTS - The United We Stand Festival will be hosted by Free & Equal, June 22 in Little Rock, Arkansas. The festival aims to reform the electoral process throughout the U.S.
SOCIALISM - The Socialism 2013 Conference is scheduled for June 27-30 in Chicago, featuring talks and panel discussions.
Contact: email@example.com; http://www.socialismconference.org.
LITERACY - The National Association for Media Literacy Education (NAMLE) will hold its conference July 12-13 in Los Angeles under the heading, Intersections: Teaching and Learning Across Media.
Contact: 10 Laurel Hill Drive, Cherry Hill, NJ 08003; http://namle.net/conference/.
IWW - The North American Work People’s College will take place July 12-16 at Mesaba Co-op Park in northern Minnesota. The event will bring together Wobblies from branches across the continent to learn new skills and build One Big Union.
PEACESTOCK - On July 13th, the 11th Annual Peacestock: A Gathering for Peace, will take place at Windbeam Farm in Hager City, WI. The event is a mixture of music, speakers and community for peace. Sponsored by Veterans for Peace.
Contact: Bill Habedank, 1913 Grandview Ave., Red Wing, MN 55066; 651-388-7733; firstname.lastname@example.org; http://www.peacestockvfp.org.
CHILDREN’S DEFENSE - July 15-19, join clergy, seminarians, Christian educators, young adult leaders and other faith-based advocates for children at CDF Haley Farm in Clinton, Tennessee, for five days of spiritual renewal, networking, movement building workshops, and continuing education about the urgent needs of children at the 19th annual Proctor Institute for Child Advocacy Ministry.
Contact: email@example.com; http://www.childrensdefense.org.
ACTIVIST CAMP - Youth Empowered Action (YEA) Camp will have sessions in July and August in Ben Lomond, CA; Portland, OR; Charlton, MA. YEA Camp is designed for activists 12-17 years old who want to make a difference in the world.
Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org; http://yeacamp.org/.
LA RAZA - The annual National Council of La Raza (NCLR) Conference is scheduled for July 18-19 in New Orleans, with workshops, presentations and panel discussions.
Contact: NCLR Headquarters Office, Raul Yzaguirre Building, 1126 16th Street, NW, Washington, DC 20036; 202-785-1670; www.nclr.org.
LABOR - The Eastern Conference For Workplace Democracy: Growing Our Cooperatives, Growing Our Communities, will be held at Drexel University in Philadelphia, PA, July 26-28.
Contact: email@example.com; http://east.usworker.coop/.
WOMEN/LYNNE STEWART- Radical Women is asking for support letters and cards to be sent to Lynne Stewart. Stewart is a civil rights attorney and political prisoner who is currently in jail. She has breast cancer and authorities have denied her request for transfer from her Texas prison to the New York City hospital where she received medical attention during a prior bout of breast cancer. Send messages and cards to: Lynne Stewart 53504-054, Federal Medical Center Carswell, P.O. Box 27137, Fort Worth, TX 76127.
Contact: 747 Polk Street, San Francisco, CA 94109; 415-864-1278; RadicalWomenUS@gmail.com; http://lynnestewart.org/; http://www.radicalwomen.org/.
HAITI/WOMEN - Haiti’s government is considering a legal reform measure that would prohibit and punish all sexual assault, including marital rape. MADRE and the International Campaign to Stop Rape & Gender Violence in Conflict are launching a petition to raise international support for this push to address violence against women in Haiti.
Contact: 121 West 27th Street, #301, New York, NY 10001; 212-627-0444; firstname.lastname@example.org; http://www.madre.org.
SYRIA/MIDDLE EAST - The Middle East Children’s Alliance (MECA) is currently seeking funds to assist more than 200,000 refugees fleeing violence in Syria.
FOLK FESTIVAL - The Falcon Ridge Folk Festival will be held August 2-4, in the Berkshires, NY.
Contact: http://www.falconridgefolk.com/; email@example.com.
WAR RESISTERS - The War Resisters League will hold its 90th anniversary conference, Revolutionary Nonviolence: Building Bridges Across Generations and Communities, August 1-4, at Georgetown University. The event will focus on the U.S.’ long history of antimilitarism.
Contact: 339 Lafayette Street, New York, NY 10012; 212-228-0450; firstname.lastname@example.org; http://www.warresisters.org.
POPULAR ECONOMICS - The Center for Popular Economics is holding its 2013 Summer Institute August 4-9 at Hampshire College in Amherst, MA. No background in economics is needed for this intensive training. This year’s theme is, The Care Economy: Building a Just Economy with a Heart.
Contact: Center for Popular Economics, PO Box 785 Amherst, MA 01004; 413-545-0743; email@example.com; www.populareconomics.org.
VETERANS - Veterans for Peace is holding the 28th annual convention August 6-11 in Madison, WI. This year’s theme is, Power To The Peaceful.
DEMOCRACY - The Democracy Convention will take place August 7-11 in Madison, WI. The convention brings together nine conferences including topics such as media, education, defense, race, environment and others.
MEN - The 38th National Conference on Men & Masculinity: Forging Justice: Creating Safe, Equal and Accountable Communities, presented in partnership with HAVEN, will be held in Detroit, MI, August 8-10.
Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org; http://www.nomas.org/.
OCCUPY - An Occupy National Gathering will be held in Kalamazoo, MI, August 21-25.
Contact: email@example.com; http://occupynationalgathering.net/.
COMMUNITIES - The Communities Conference is a networking and learning opportunity for co-operative or communal lifestyles, with workshops, events and entertainment; scheduled for August 30-September 2 at the Twin Oaks Community in Louisa, Virginia.
LABOR DAY - The 29th annual Bread and Roses Festival, a celebration of the ethnic diversity and labor history of Lawrence, MA, will be held September 2, in honor of the 1912 Bread and Roses Strike. There will be music, dance, poetry, drama, ethnic food, historical demonstrations, walking & trolley tours.
Contact: PO Box 1137, Lawrence, MA 01842; 978-794-1655; http://www.breadandrosesheritage.org/.
OCCUPY WALL STREET - September 17 is the two-year anniversary of the Occupy Wall Street movement. Events are planned in New York City and worldwide.
TEACHERS - The 13th Annual Conference, “Teaching for Social Justice: The Politics of Pedagogy,” will be held October 12 in San Francisco, CA. The free event features workshops, resources, and free childcare.
Contact: 415-676-7844; firstname.lastname@example.org; http://www.t4sj.org/.
HAITI - International Action, which brings clean water and chlorinators to Haiti, seeks office space capable of housing up to six people and their office equipment.
Contact: Zach Bremer, Zbrehmer@haitiwater.org; 202-488-0735; http://www.haitiwater.org/.
MEDIA - The Union for Democratic Communications and Project Censored are sponsoring a joint conference on media democracy, media activism and social justice to be held November 1-3 at the University of San Francisco. Proposals for presentations, workshops and panels from activists and critical scholars are invited.