"Disarmament and Non-Proliferation"
By David Peterson at Dec 27, 2006
The 2005 World Summit Outcome document was adopted by the
UN General Assembly in a non-recorded vote on September 16,
2005. (For a verbatim record of that particular day's activities in the
General Assembly, see A/60/PV.8.)
Of course, the final draft of this document went through preliminary draft-stages.
I just checked one of the preliminary drafts, dated July 22, 2005, for mentions of three words: (1) 'disarmament', (2) 'non-proliferation', and (3) 'nuclear'. (See Draft Outcome Document - July 22, 2005.)
It turns out that in the July 22, 2005 draft, not only did the word 'disarmament' appear 8 different times. The word 'non-proliferation' 8 different times. And the word 'nuclear' 20 different times.
But the July 22, 2005 draft even had a section devoted to "Disarmament and non-proliferation." As you might have expected for any major international proclamation whose values and principles inlcude the esablishment of a just and lasting peace all over the world in accordance with the purposes and principles of the UN Charter and international law. And given all of the fuss (some of it genuine, no doubt -- at least it ought to be) on the contemporary scene about Tehran's nuclear program -- which by no means has ventured onto the weapons stage. (A stage consistently foresworn by Tehran. And categorically ruled out by its Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei every single time he addresses the subject.) Not to mention Pyongyang's -- which in early October did in fact reach the weapons stage. And unlike Israel for the past three to four decades, reached it openly and unambiguously. Even if sub-kiloton. (See "DPRK Successfully Conducts Underground Nuclear Test," Korean Central News Agency, October 9, 2006.)
However, something very curious happens when we check the final draft of the 2005 World Summit Outcome for its positions on these same nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation objectives. Namely, their disappearance.
In the final draft, that is, there are zero mentions of the word 'disarmament' anywhere within the document. Zero mentions of the word 'non-proliferation'. And but one mention of the word 'nuclear', in Paragraph 91, where the document states:
91. We support efforts for the early entry into force of the International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism and strongly encourage States to consider becoming parties to it expeditiously and acceding without delay to the twelve other international conventions and protocols against terrorism and implementing them.
But that's it.
What this means is that between the proposal of the July 22, 2005 draft, and the negotiations that culminated in the final 2005 World Summit Outcome draft dated September 15, 2005 (though not adopted until the next day, September 16), all mentions of the goal of disarmament, all mentions of the goal of non-proliferation, and all but one mention of the word 'nuclear' (and then only as it applies to "Nuclear Terrorism") had been scrubbed from the earlier draft as it existed just eight weeks before the adoption of the final draft.
And all of these dramatic deletions occurred in an era when it is alleged that the International Community is deeply and even gravely concerned about the dangers posed by the existence of nuclear weapons, as well as by their proliferation.
Surprised? (Don't be.)
Given the disappearance from the final Outcome document of the earlier draft's concern with "Disarmament and non-proliferation," it might be worth discussing what happened to the missing material -- and why? (Hint: I doubt very much that the robust objections of Tehran and Pyongyang had anything to do with it.)
"Nuclear Notebook," Robert S. Norris and Hans Kristensen et al., maintained jointly by the Natural Resources Defense Council and the Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists (with continual updates)
FYA ("For your archives"): Am reproducing here the excised section, "Disarmament and non-proliferation," exactly as it appeared in the July 22, 2005 draft.
Disarmament and non-proliferation
77. We appeal to all States to pursue and intensify negotiations with a view to advancing disarmament and strengthening the international non-proliferation regime.
78. We urge all States to accede to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, the Chemical Weapons Convention and the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention and we pledge to comply fully with all the articles of those conventions, in order to strengthen the multilateral framework for non-proliferation and disarmament and to achieve full adherence to these instruments.
79. We reiterate our firm commitment to the NPT and its three pillars: disarmament, non-proliferation, and the peaceful use of nuclear energy. We look forward to strengthening the NPT's implementation, including through future Review Conferences.
80. We resolve to:
• Appeal to all States to take action, in a multilateral framework, to prevent and eliminate the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and their means of delivery
• Also appeal to the nuclear weapon States to take concrete steps towards nuclear disarmament with the objective of eliminating all such weapons, including through the implementation of article VI of the Non-Proliferation Treaty
• Maintain a moratorium on nuclear test explosions pending the entry into force of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty and call upon all States to become a party to the Treaty
• Strengthen verification of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons by concluding the Model Additional Protocol, the standard for compliance, and to conclude such protocol without delay; and call for universal accession to the comprehensive safeguards agreements, as provided for in Article III of the NPT, and to additional protocols, and recognize that such instruments enable the IAEA to verify the peaceful use of nuclear energy, thus preventing nuclear proliferation
• Support and continue to work towards the establishment of nuclear-weapon-free zones, created by means of arrangements freely arrived at by consensus among the States of the region concerned, in order to reinforce regional peace and coexistence, prevent proliferation and advance disarmament
• Call upon the nuclear weapons States to reaffirm their commitment to Negative Security Assurances
• Strengthen the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention through continued multilateral and national efforts to improve its verification and implementation, and encourage all States Parties to submit informations on confidence-building measures as required by the Review Conference of the BTWC
• Complete the destruction of chemical weapons stockpiles consistent with the Chemical Weapons Convention in a timely and effective manner
• Prevent non-State actors from gaining access to nuclear, chemical and biological weapons, related technology and materials as well as their means of delivery, including by strengthening relevant national control measures and by complying with Security Council resolution 1540 (2004)
• Promote timely agreement to prevent the spread of uranium enrichment and plutonium separation technologies and facilities that respect fully the right to the peaceful uses of nuclear energy as set out in the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, including alternatives such as the provision of guaranteed nuclear fuel supplies
• Urge the Conference on Disarmament to agree on a programme of work which includes the commencement, without delay, of negotiations on a fissile material cut-off treaty
• Encourage States Parties to the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material to seek early ratification of the amendment adopted on 8 July 2005, and we encourage those States that have not yet done so to promptly accede to the Convention on Physical Protection and Nuclear Material and to ratify its amendment
• Develop effective multilaterally negotiated measures to prevent an arms race in outer space
• Explore effective measures to prevent and combat the proliferation of nuclear, chemical and biological weapons, related technology and materials and rockets and shoulder-fired missiles, as well as to ban their transfer to non-State actors, including by implementing effective national export controls
• Urge States involved in the transport of radioactive materials by sea through SIDS regions to continue to engage in dialogue with SIDS and other coastal States to address their concerns, particularly those related to the further development and strengthening, within the appropriate fora of international regulatory regimes to enhance safety, disclosure, viability, security and compensation in relation to such transport
81. We agree to adopt and implement international instruments to regulate the marking, tracing, illicit brokering and transfer of small arms and light weapons.
82. We agree to ensure the effective monitoring and enforcement of United Nations arms embargos.
83. We urge States parties to fully implement their obligations under the Anti-Personnel Mine Ban Convention and Amended Protocol II to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, and we encourage those States that have not yet done to promptly accede to the Convention. We also call upon States in a position to do so to provide greater technical assistance to mine-affected States.
84. We invite all States to take and implement confidence-building and disarmament measures, with a view to promoting and strengthening regional and international security environment.