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I ronically, there is little about New York City’s beloved MetroCard to suggest forensic sophistication. Its single notched corner, ostensibly to orient the blind, seems to belong to that class of minor traumas—chipped teeth and mashed knuckles—one associates with an NYPD holding cell rather than Riker’s. Its inoffensive typography, sunny side up like a motorman’s late breakfast, is a faux Superman logo and a plea to the swift and clumsy that one should calmly “insert this way”; the adjoining slash gives one a moment to reflect before it deadpans a quiet clarification, “this side facing you.” Its one visibly distinguishing characteristic, exiled to the pictographic clutter of the flipside, is a serial number imprinted onto a nonreflective white strip. This number, however, is what distinguishes the MetroCard from most other municipal transit passes: with every swipe through a subway turnstile, the MetroCard transmits its unique serial number, the current time and date, and its location to the Metropolitan Transit Authority’s data center, where the information remains until systematically purged or reprieved in the course of an investigation by the Transit Bureau’s special investigations unit. MetroCard logs have been audited in recent years to discredit suspect alibis in a number of NYPD investigations, including the December 1999 assault and robbery of a Manhattan supermarket manager following which a suspect’s MetroCard recorded a swipe in lower Manhattan’s South Ferry subway station despite the accused’s claim that he had spent the day in question on Staten Island.
Although a discredited alibi may ultimately serve as little more than blood in the water for a successful prosecution, law enforcement agencies throughout the world have embraced the technique of electronic auditing as a sure sign of things to come in the burgeoning field of forensic technology. Automated toll tracking, financial transaction analysis, cellular phone triangulation, Internet monitoring, email decryption, DNA analysis, video surveillance, and facial recognition software have all become sought-after forensic technologies in recent years, seeming at times to have relegated composite sketch artists and purveyors of dusty latents to the pages of a remaindered Mickey Spillane whodunit. Stoked by periodic warnings of malicious hackers, identity theft, and the reliably impenetrable Russian mob—and not unmindful of the renewed popularity of TV forensic procedurals like “CSI”—law enforcement agencies have responded annually with exponentially higher budgets for cutting-edge equipment and training, invariably showing up at technophile trade shows like Comdex in search of the latest retinal scanner or low-light video camera.
What generally isn’t mentioned on the trade show floor, however, is the dirty little question of authentication: is possession of a transit card sufficient to lock down a suspect’s itinerary and is a false alibi necessarily a guilty plea? How reliable is video footage captured by an ATM and would you be able to pick a suspect out of a lineup based on a low resolution black-and-white image? How secure is a web-based email account from misappropriation of identity? Forensic technology relies on the fact that as citizens and consumers we unconsciously leave both physical and electronic evidence in our wake—by analyzing individual nodes in a suspect’s datastream (a credit card purchase here, a subway transfer there), investigators can piece together events and motives surrounding a criminal act. Unfortunately, many of the aforementioned technologies rely on authentication by proxy, the tacit assumption that a piece of evidence was physically connected in some fashion to the accused at the time of a crime. While this might appear a pretty safe assumption in most criminal investigations, that negligible element of ambiguity—the possibility, perhaps, that a suspect’s credit card was surreptitiously borrowed or its number and expiration date appropriated following a carelessly handled transaction, or that a discredited alibi hides not a murder, but a hotel tryst—invariably results in an accumulation of what the courts have long recognized as circumstantial evidence and raises the disturbing possibility that America’s current forensic renaissance is creating a culture of DNA Lite, a judicial tautology in which forensic jargon, technology boosterism, and the unrelated success of DNA fingerprinting somehow manage to sell the notion that if it looks like a duck and quacks like a duck, it’s clearly guilty of being a duck. Even should the courts resist the continued temptation to aggrandize circumstantial evidence obtained through bleeding-edge technology, taxpayers and civil libertarians may justifiably ask whether the cost, both financial and ethical, is worth the feverish acquisition of evidence with ultimately limited prosecutorial weight.
Nearly a quarter of a decade after investigators in Leicestershire, England came up with a rather novel method of solving two related homicides, the undisputed 500-pound gorilla of forensic technology today remains DNA analysis. As familiar to schoolchildren today as an iconographized Albert Einstein (and almost as poorly understood), the DNA double helix is a complex arrangement of protein molecules, which architects the distinctive genetic characteristics of a living organism. Using hair, blood stains, semen, bone marrow, or any other tissue or bodily fluid that contains nucleated cells, a suspect’s characteristic genetic markers can be visualized onto x-ray film in a barcode-like pattern and then compared with genetic material retrieved from a crime scene. Theoretically all but infallible, DNA analysis came of age in America during the frenzied 1995 celebrity murder trial of O.J. Simpson, during which genetic evidence was clouded by accusations of mishandling of blood samples and crime scene tampering. Despite its inauspicious 15 minutes in the limelight, DNA analysis has continued to play an aggressive role in criminal investigations and surprise exonerations, prompting the state of Illinois in January 2000 to declare a moratorium on executions until death row inmates could be allowed the opportunity to undergo genetic sequencing, a decision made after 13 Illinois death penalty cases were overturned due to an embarrassment of exculpatory evidence. Myriad technical advancements have been implemented since DNA first burst into the courtroom like an overzealous DA and a laboratory process, which once took weeks can now be completed in just hours for the same price as dinner for two at a midtown Manhattan restaurant. Although serious concerns have been raised about the unregulated warehousing of private genetic data, DNA analysis is now widely recognized as a crime investigator’s Remington flathead—the one tool that no paid professional should be without.
Genetic sequencing is, however, considered merely a subset of a much broader pursuit of human-machine interaction popularly known as biometrics. Retinal scanning, voiceprint identification, fingerprint deconstruction, handwriting analysis, keyboard dynamics, and video surveillance are all biometric technologies, since they attempt to identify unique physiological characteristics of a human subject. Taxonomy notwithstanding, though, none of the aforementioned—as shall be seen—approach DNA analysis as a quantitatively reliable forensic tool and, while biometric forms of authentication by definition would appear to be all but impossible to “hack,” the greatest threat to biometrics isn’t fraud at all, but accuracy. Deployed “in the wild,” many biometric detectors fail to identify legitimate users or inappropriately recognize strangers (“false positives,” in the prevailing security lexicon). The human form, as it happens, is not so easy to quantify.
If you haven’t visited NORAD’s Cheyenne Mountain stronghold recently, you’re perhaps unaware that optical-, voice-, and fingerprint-based technologies are no longer reserved for Blade Runners and 007’s late-model Aston Martin. Biometric sensors are turning up more and more in various restricted military and financial facilities with some speculative crossover into consumer applications, although their relative paucity limits their likelihood as forensic tools. All three are among the most accurate forms of biometric authentication on the market, since they require close interaction (generally anywhere from a few feet away to actual contact) and a certain amount of time to achieve an accurate scan (a few seconds, on average). Retina scans rank among the most creepily reliable matches, employing a high resolution analysis of distinctive blood vessel patterns in the eye. Iris scans are significantly less conclusive, particularly when obtained from a distance of several inches or more as is generally the case when used in conjunction with video surveillance systems. Both systems presumably benefit from the visceral unease of going eye-to-eye with the machine and being first to blink.
Voice recognition technology, on the other hand, remains plagued by tonal variation and lack of clarity, a far cry from the contemplative percipience of Kubrick’s HAL 9000, and barely manages to maintain a tentative foothold in the consumer marketplace by requiring users to undergo lengthy voice training exercises during which the system learns to recognize an individual’s ostensibly annoying speech patterns. Fingerprints have lately come to acquire a similar stigma. Whether acquired digitally, using a CCD (a “charge-coupled device,” such as one might find in a digital camera), or lifted from a handgun with loctite cyanoacrylate, crime scene latents still often are an exercise in interpretation, relying on a statistical accumulation of matching loops, whorls, and arches to trigger a probable match.
Handwriting and keyboard dynamics analysis are of a particularly ambiguous class of biometric technology. Handwriting analysis has a long and contentious history of ambiguous interpretation, which it shares with the polygraph, making it one of the least valuable forms of evidence in most fraud cases and lending it the aura of a vaguely unsavory profession practiced by retired civil servants and women with a few too many cats. Although technology-assisted handwriting analysis takes into account several heretofore unacknowledged characteristics of a subject’s signature, such as speed and stylus pressure, a quick glance through one’s cancelled checks is enough to reveal handwriting analysis’s Achilles heel: signatures, like snowflakes, are never exactly alike.
Keyboard dynamics is, in a sense, handwriting analysis’s digital progeny: by analyzing a subject’s distinctive hunt-and-peck strategies at the keyboard, the system is said to distinguish quantifiable differences in user training, reflexes, and habit. Since accuracy is directly related to the length of a subject’s text sample—and a significant sample is often required to perform even a superficial analysis—many security professionals see this particular form of biometric technology as less than viable in most authentication scenarios.
Video surveillance may currently be the most popular of all biometric technologies, with the exception of DNA sequencing. The two are extremely dissimilar technologies: whereas DNA analysis requires a physical sample within which to isolate genetic material, video surveillance and “eigenface” (facial recognition) systems are limited to a cursory glance across a crowded room. Within seconds at best, a video surveillance system must deconstruct musculature, bone structure, and other distinctive facial features, compare these algorithmically with a database of suspects, and judiciously decide whether the individual humping across its field of view in what may well be a wig and glasses is a confidant of Osama bin Laden. As a January 2002 report by the ACLU discusses, such systems are predictably error-prone. Based on an installation of the Visionics Corporations’s Face-IT system for the Tampa Police Department, the ACLU concluded that the system failed to identify a single suspect in its database and generated innumerable false positives before being discontinued. A trial run of this same software by PC Magazine revealed how a crafty tester used a color printer to create a photograph of a face familiar to the system, cut a nose hole to give the mask appropriate depth if an unflattering likeness, and achieved access as an apparently legitimate user.
Despite the dubious success rate of many biometric technologies, law enforcement agencies continue to court Silicon Valley solutions to problems, which might benefit more from competent policework and investigative rigor. Of equal concern is the increasing monitoring and potential abuse of non-biometric forms of authentication in the pursuit of criminal prosecutions. While biometric technologies require some form of contact with the subject, many alternate forms of authentication do not. Password and PIN access, for instance, are easily subverted by non-material theft (a subject may not even be aware that his or her authentication has been compromised), as are email accounts. Both the National Security Agency’s multinational Echelon system and the FBI’s Carnivore system monitor email traffic with little or no judicial oversight, compiling profiles on suspicious individuals and subversive organizations based on the incidence of keywords in unencrypted and loosely authenticated electronic correspondence, raising the possibility that you can be flagged if someone with your name or a similar email address happens to muse in print that Scott Ian, guitarist of Anthrax fame, is da bomb.
Cellular phones and transit cards also employ non-biometric forms of authentication, since they can be used by someone other than the accused (or employed by the accused for purposes which may only seem to support a prosecutor’s interpretation of events). As any criminal attorney will avow, there’s a big difference between putting the accused at the scene of the crime and putting the accused down the street at an ATM. Despite the limited prosecutorial weight of technologies such as cellular phone triangulation (the “homing in” on a cellular phone by the strength of its signal relative to nearby transmitting towers), law enforcement policymakers continue to pursue expanded legislation for tracking wireless devices and intercepting packet-mode communications (e.g., text messages used by alphanumeric pagers), if only for the aura of authority that accompanies the introduction of technology-laden evidence in a criminal trial.
Biometric or not, authentication protocols and technologies inevitably shift the burden of proof to the accused, leaving it to defense attorneys to establish a clear demarcation between a suspect and his or her various authenticated identities, lending certain trials the eerie foreshadowing of what the ACLU describes in its report on video surveillance systems as a “move to permanently brand some people as ‘under suspicion’...” While few would debate the relative value of circumstantial evidence to criminal prosecution or fail to appreciate the advantages of surveillance technology in the conviction of organized crime figures, the growing popularity of security scans, biometric algorithms, and serial numbers may seem more than a bit disconcerting. Security is by all counts a multibillion dollar industry in the United States, with significant marketshare in the casino gaming industry, among others. Unsurprisingly, a disproportionately small amount of this expenditure seems to trickle down through the justice system to the laboratories that analyze DNA in both criminal prosecutions and appeals, leaving much of the financial burden to The Innocence Project and other pro bono legal funds that utilize genetic evidence to defend the wrongly accused and indigent. Although forensic technologies will undoubtedly continue to assist in the conviction of actual felons, the rest of us will have to content ourselves with the tenuous protection of the First Amendment and the promise of a safer casino.
Timothy Quinn is a writer and technology professional. He currently lives and works in New York City.
Z Magazine Archive
AnnouncementsLABOR - May 1 is May Day. Workers of the world will celebrate the 124th anniversary of International Worker’s Day. Born out of a call for an 8-hour workday in the United States, this day is an opportunity for all workers to show their solidarity with one another, as well as to renew the call for labor rights.
FARM CONFERENCE - The Farm Conference on Community and Sustainability will be held May 24-26 in Summertown, TN, in partnership with the Fellowship of Intentional Communities. Tour green homes, see sustainable food production, learn about solar installations, alternative education, midwifery, and more.
Contact: Douglas@thefarmcommunity.com; http://www.thefarmcommunity.com/.
PALESTINE - The Conference of the Palestinian Shatat in North American will be held June 3-5 in Vancouver. The conference will examine the future of the Palestinian liberation movement.
Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org; http://www.palestinianconference.org/.
LABOR - The Pacific Northwest Labor History Association’s 45th annual conference will be held May 3-5, in Portland, OR. This year’s theme is Labor Under Attack: Learning from the Past and Preparing for the Future. A call for presentations, workshops and papers is currently underway.
Contact: PNLHA, 27920 68th Ave. East, Graham, WA 98338; 206-406-2604; PNLHA1@aol.com; http://www3.telus.net.
MARIJUANA - On the first Saturday of May marijuana legalization activists will hold informational and educational events, rallies and marches in over 300 cities around the world.
ECONOMICS - The Union For Radical Political Economics will hold its 39th annual conference May 9-11 in New York City.
RECLAIM THE DREAM - The 2013 Poor People’s Campaign & March from Baltimore to Washington D.C. will be May 11. Communities, schools and unions interested in participating are encouraged to contact the Baltimore People’s Assembly.
Contact: 410-500-2168; 410-218-4835; BaltimorePeoplesAssembly@gmail.com; Southern Christian Leadership Conference of Baltimore and the Baltimore Peoples Power Assembly, 2011 N. Charles St., Baltimore, MD 21218.
MOTHER’S DAY - The 17th Annual Mother’s Day Walk For Peace will be May 12th, in Dorchester, MA. The walk began in 1996 for families who had lost children to violence. The day has become a way for thousands of people to financially support the work of the Louis Brown Peace Institute.
Contact: http://www.ldbpeaceinstitute.org/; http://mothersdaywalk4peace.org/.
NATO 5 - An International Week of Solidarity with the NATO 5 has been called for May 16-21. Supports call on supporters to raise awareness of the NATO 5 and support funds for the defendants on the one-year anniversary of their preemptive arrests.
Contact: email@example.com; https://nato5support.wordpress.com.
MOUNTAINTOP - The 2013 Mountain Justice Summer Activist Training Camp will be held May 19-27 in Damascus, VA. It will be a week of workshops, field trips to view Mountain Top Removal coal mines, direct actions, and service project.
FEMINIST SCI-FI - The feminist science fiction convention WisCon 37 is scheduled for May 24-27 in Madison, WI.
Contact: WisCon, ? SF3, PO Box 1624, Madison, WI 53701; firstname.lastname@example.org; http://www.wiscon.info/.
ANARCHY FEST - A month-long Festival of Anarchy is scheduled for May in Montreal. The festival includes The Montreal Anarchist Bookfair (May 19-20).
Contact: http://www.anarchistbookfair.ca/; http://www.radicalmontreal.com/.
LABOR - The International Labor Rights Forum will present: Down the Supply Chain, Driving Corporate Accountability, on May 22 in Washington, DC. The Labor Rights Awards Ceremony and Reception will honor pioneers in supply chain worker organizing, working solidarity and international labor rights policy.
MULTICULTURE - The 26th annual National Conference on Race & Ethnicity in American Higher Education (NCORE) will take place May 28-June 1, in New Orleans.
Contact: SWCHRS, 3200 Marshall Avenue, Suite 290, Norman, OK 73072; 405-325-3694; email@example.com; www.ncore.ou.edu.
MEDIA - The 2013 Alliance for Community Media Annual Conference will be held May 29-31, in San Francisco, CA. Participants will include educators, community leaders, media professionals, journalists, nonprofit leaders, policymakers and students.
RADIO - The 38th Annual Community Radio Conference is schedule for May 29-June 1, in San Francisco, CA, with discussions and workshops.
Contact: 1101 Pennsylvania Ave. NW, Suite 600, Washington, DC 20004; 202-756-2268; firstname.lastname@example.org; http://www.nfcb.org/.
BRADLEY MANNING - On June 1, a rally will be held at Fort Meade in support of Bradley Manning.
BIKES - Bikes Not Bombs is holding its 24th annual Bike-A-Thon and Green Roots Festival in Boston, MA on June 3, with several bike rides scheduled, music, exhibitors and more.
Contact: Bikes Not Bombs, 284 Amory St., Jamaica Plain, MA 02130; 617-522-0222; email@example.com; www.bikesnotbombs.org.
LEFT FORUM - The 2013 Left Forum will be held June 7-9, at Pace University in New York City.
Contact: 365 Fifth Avenue, CUNY Graduated Center, ? Sociology Dept., New York, NY 10016; http://www.leftforum.org/.
VEGAN FEST - Mad City Vegan Fest will be held in Madison, WI, June 8. The annual event features food, speakers, and exhibitors.
Contact: 122 State Street, Suite 405 B, Madison, WI 53701; firstname.lastname@example.org; http://veganfest.org/.
ADC CONFERENCE - The American-Arab Anti-Discrimination Committee (ADC) holds its annual conference June 13-16, in Washington, DC, with panel discussions and workshops on civil rights, media and other topics.
Contact: 1990 M Street, Suite 610, Washington, DC, 20036; 202-244-2990; email@example.com http://convention.adc.org/.
CUBA/SOCIALISM - A Cuban-North American Dialog on Socialist Renewal and Global Capitalist Crisis will be held in Havana, Cuba, June 16-30. There will be a 5 day Seminar at University of Havana, plus visits to a cooperative, urban garden, community development project, social research centers, and educational & medical institutions.
Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org; http://www.globaljusticecenter.org/.
NETROOTS - The 8th Annual Netroots Nation conference will take place June 20-23 in San Jose, CA. The event features panels, trainings, networking, screenings, and keynotes.
Contact: 164 Robles Way, #276, Vallejo, CA 94591; email@example.com; http://www.netrootsnation.org/.
MEDIA - The 15th annual Allied Media Conference will be held June 20-23, in Detroit.
Contact: 4126 Third Street, Detroit, MI 48201; http://alliedmedia.org/.
GRASSROOTS - The United We Stand Festival will be hosted by Free & Equal, June 22 in Little Rock, Arkansas. The festival aims to reform the electoral process throughout the U.S.
SOCIALISM - The Socialism 2013 Conference is scheduled for June 27-30 in Chicago, featuring talks and panel discussions.
Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org; http://www.socialismconference.org.
LITERACY - The National Association for Media Literacy Education (NAMLE) will hold its conference July 12-13 in Los Angeles under the heading, Intersections: Teaching and Learning Across Media.
Contact: 10 Laurel Hill Drive, Cherry Hill, NJ 08003; http://namle.net/conference/.
IWW - The North American Work People’s College will take place July 12-16 at Mesaba Co-op Park in northern Minnesota. The event will bring together Wobblies from branches across the continent to learn new skills and build One Big Union.
PEACESTOCK - On July 13th, the 11th Annual Peacestock: A Gathering for Peace, will take place at Windbeam Farm in Hager City, WI. The event is a mixture of music, speakers and community for peace. Sponsored by Veterans for Peace.
Contact: Bill Habedank, 1913 Grandview Ave., Red Wing, MN 55066; 651-388-7733; email@example.com; http://www.peacestockvfp.org.
CHILDREN’S DEFENSE - July 15-19, join clergy, seminarians, Christian educators, young adult leaders and other faith-based advocates for children at CDF Haley Farm in Clinton, Tennessee, for five days of spiritual renewal, networking, movement building workshops, and continuing education about the urgent needs of children at the 19th annual Proctor Institute for Child Advocacy Ministry.
Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org; http://www.childrensdefense.org.
ACTIVIST CAMP - Youth Empowered Action (YEA) Camp will have sessions in July and August in Ben Lomond, CA; Portland, OR; Charlton, MA. YEA Camp is designed for activists 12-17 years old who want to make a difference in the world.
Contact: email@example.com; http://yeacamp.org/.
LA RAZA - The annual National Council of La Raza (NCLR) Conference is scheduled for July 18-19 in New Orleans, with workshops, presentations and panel discussions.
Contact: NCLR Headquarters Office, Raul Yzaguirre Building, 1126 16th Street, NW, Washington, DC 20036; 202-785-1670; www.nclr.org.
LABOR - The Eastern Conference For Workplace Democracy: Growing Our Cooperatives, Growing Our Communities, will be held at Drexel University in Philadelphia, PA, July 26-28.
Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org; http://east.usworker.coop/.
WOMEN/LYNNE STEWART- Radical Women is asking for support letters and cards to be sent to Lynne Stewart. Stewart is a civil rights attorney and political prisoner who is currently in jail. She has breast cancer and authorities have denied her request for transfer from her Texas prison to the New York City hospital where she received medical attention during a prior bout of breast cancer. Send messages and cards to: Lynne Stewart 53504-054, Federal Medical Center Carswell, P.O. Box 27137, Fort Worth, TX 76127.
Contact: 747 Polk Street, San Francisco, CA 94109; 415-864-1278; RadicalWomenUS@gmail.com; http://lynnestewart.org/; http://www.radicalwomen.org/.
HAITI/WOMEN - Haiti’s government is considering a legal reform measure that would prohibit and punish all sexual assault, including marital rape. MADRE and the International Campaign to Stop Rape & Gender Violence in Conflict are launching a petition to raise international support for this push to address violence against women in Haiti.
Contact: 121 West 27th Street, #301, New York, NY 10001; 212-627-0444; email@example.com; http://www.madre.org.
SYRIA/MIDDLE EAST - The Middle East Children’s Alliance (MECA) is currently seeking funds to assist more than 200,000 refugees fleeing violence in Syria.
FOLK FESTIVAL - The Falcon Ridge Folk Festival will be held August 2-4, in the Berkshires, NY.
Contact: http://www.falconridgefolk.com/; firstname.lastname@example.org.
WAR RESISTERS - The War Resisters League will hold its 90th anniversary conference, Revolutionary Nonviolence: Building Bridges Across Generations and Communities, August 1-4, at Georgetown University. The event will focus on the U.S.’ long history of antimilitarism.
Contact: 339 Lafayette Street, New York, NY 10012; 212-228-0450; email@example.com; http://www.warresisters.org.
POPULAR ECONOMICS - The Center for Popular Economics is holding its 2013 Summer Institute August 4-9 at Hampshire College in Amherst, MA. No background in economics is needed for this intensive training. This year’s theme is, The Care Economy: Building a Just Economy with a Heart.
Contact: Center for Popular Economics, PO Box 785 Amherst, MA 01004; 413-545-0743; firstname.lastname@example.org; www.populareconomics.org.
VETERANS - Veterans for Peace is holding the 28th annual convention August 6-11 in Madison, WI. This year’s theme is, Power To The Peaceful.
DEMOCRACY - The Democracy Convention will take place August 7-11 in Madison, WI. The convention brings together nine conferences including topics such as media, education, defense, race, environment and others.
MEN - The 38th National Conference on Men & Masculinity: Forging Justice: Creating Safe, Equal and Accountable Communities, presented in partnership with HAVEN, will be held in Detroit, MI, August 8-10.
Contact: email@example.com; http://www.nomas.org/.
OCCUPY - An Occupy National Gathering will be held in Kalamazoo, MI, August 21-25.
Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org; http://occupynationalgathering.net/.
COMMUNITIES - The Communities Conference is a networking and learning opportunity for co-operative or communal lifestyles, with workshops, events and entertainment; scheduled for August 30-September 2 at the Twin Oaks Community in Louisa, Virginia.
LABOR DAY - The 29th annual Bread and Roses Festival, a celebration of the ethnic diversity and labor history of Lawrence, MA, will be held September 2, in honor of the 1912 Bread and Roses Strike. There will be music, dance, poetry, drama, ethnic food, historical demonstrations, walking & trolley tours.
Contact: PO Box 1137, Lawrence, MA 01842; 978-794-1655; http://www.breadandrosesheritage.org/.
OCCUPY WALL STREET - September 17 is the two-year anniversary of the Occupy Wall Street movement. Events are planned in New York City and worldwide.
TEACHERS - The 13th Annual Conference, “Teaching for Social Justice: The Politics of Pedagogy,” will be held October 12 in San Francisco, CA. The free event features workshops, resources, and free childcare.
Contact: 415-676-7844; email@example.com; http://www.t4sj.org/.
HAITI - International Action, which brings clean water and chlorinators to Haiti, seeks office space capable of housing up to six people and their office equipment.
Contact: Zach Bremer, Zbrehmer@haitiwater.org; 202-488-0735; http://www.haitiwater.org/.
MEDIA - The Union for Democratic Communications and Project Censored are sponsoring a joint conference on media democracy, media activism and social justice to be held November 1-3 at the University of San Francisco. Proposals for presentations, workshops and panels from activists and critical scholars are invited.