Earth Inc.: The Management of Life: Turning and Churning the Living into the Dead (Part II)
Earth Inc.: The Management of Life: Turning and Churning the Living into the Dead (Part II)
11 November 2011
Food & Agriculture…
According to the international non-profit organization GRAIN, global emissions could be cut in half within a few decades if “measures are taken to restructure agriculture and the larger food system around food sovereignty, small scale farming, agro-ecology and local markets.” GRAIN works to support small farmers and social movements in their struggles for autonomous communities and biodiversity-based food formations. “We don’t need carbon markets or techno-fixes. We need the right policies and programmes to dump the current industrial food system and create a sustainable, equitable and truly productive one instead.”
Agriculture accounts for anywhere from 10-15% of total global emissions of greenhouse gases. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), it’s between 10-12%, according to the World Resources Institute (WRI), its 13.5%, and according to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)/WRI some 15% of global emission is caused by commercial agriculture. The IPCC reports: “[o]f global anthropogenic emissions in 2005, agriculture account[ed] for about 60% of N2O [nitrous oxide] and about 50% of CH4 [methane].” Furthermore, internationally, “agricultural CH4 and N2O emissions have increased by nearly 17% from 1990 to 2005”. A good portion of these emissions are a result of industrial agricultural practices with an increased dependence “on chemical (nitrogen) fertilizers, heavy machinery run on petrol, and highly concentrated industrial livestock operations that pump out methane waste.”
“Food is the world’s biggest economic sector, involving more transactions and employing more people by far than any other” GRAIN communicates. There is an unprecedented amount of preparation and distribution, of “processing, packaging and transportation, all of which generate GHG emissions”, in the intervening period from when food leaves the farm to when it arrives at our tables. GRAIN estimates that anywhere from 15-20% of all global GHG emissions are caused by the transport, processing and packaging, refrigeration, and retail of food. A large share of food never gets consumed. The modern industrial food system disposes of half the food that it produces. “This is enough to feed the world’s hungry six times over.” There’s no food shortage, there is a deliberate and regimented effort by way of the modern industrial food system, to operate whilst some one billion people are meant to go hungry. At the very least, this is neglect of some one billion people. It would seem, there is a similar state of affairs of mass neglect regarding basic access to healthy, clean, drinking water.
Put differently, according to Tristram Stuart, all the food wasted in the
Since the industrialization of agriculture, beginning in Europe and
In a 2011 report, GRAIN details the innate dangers of the food safety industry. “Across the world, people are getting sick and dying from food like never before. Governments and corporations are responding with all kinds of rules and regulations, but few have anything to do with public health. The trade agreements, laws and private standards used to impose their version of ‘food safety’ only entrench corporate food systems that make us sick and devastate those that truly feed and care for people, those based on biodiversity, traditional knowledge, and local markets.” There are plenty of examples of “notorious food safety incidents in recent years”. In 2008 in
There is no real accounting of the cost of annual “food safety” in economic terms, it is perhaps anywhere between $35 million and $152 billion dollars. With increased privatization, as with any industry, monetary costs are sure to explode. GRAIN stipulates that “the industrial food system is – in and of itself – the biggest source of food safety problems, because of its intensive practices, its sheer size, and the level of concentration and power it has accumulated.” This might be extended to any commercial industry, fishing, logging, mining, and so forth. To illustrate: if a small farm produces some bad meat, there will be comparatively small impact. “Networks of small and mid-sized farms producing food for regional consumption spread risk widely, diluting it. A global system built around geographically concentrated factory-sized farms does the opposite: it accumulates and magnifies risk, subjecting particular areas to industrial-style pollution and consumers globally to poisoned products.”
“Government and industry action on food safety gives little indication that they recognise any fundamental problem with industrial food production. Rarely do their regulations or standards hinder corporate practices in any significant way. On the contrary, they tend to reinforce the power of large industry while undermining, or even criminalising, small-scale production and local food cultures.” For example, in an attempt to “modernize” the dairy sector,
Another essential in the pattern of health hazards caused by the modern food industry that GRAIN details, is “the case of ractopamine, a growth promoter added to pig feed.” Both the EU and
A December 2007 diplomatic cable, originating from Ambassador Stapleton, exposed by Wikileaks shows that the Bush administration determinedly demanded that the French government ease its posture on GMOs and agricultural biotechnology generally, be it the importation or cultivation thereof. According to the cable, the top aid to the French environment minister informed the
“Such ‘diplomacy’ is for the clear and direct benefit of Monsanto, DuPont and other agricultural biotechnology corporations that do not like foreign countries banning GM seeds or foods, much less requiring labels that inform customers of the presence of GM ingredients. US firms, especially the members of the Biotechnology Industry Organisation, religiously use FTA talks by
We shouldn’t make the mistake that somehow the EU elites are beneficent, and specifically when it comes to food safety and health. “[W]hen the EU lifted a six-year import ban on Chinese poultry in 2008, in reality it gave the nod to only a handful of meat factories in Shandong Province certified to export to the EU, one of which had been taken over just two weeks before by Tyson, the world’s second-largest meat company.” Furthermore, the EU, similar to the US, is known to compel elevated standards to minimize competition, fashion bilateral committees to persist in shaping policy absent from public scrutiny or any independent oversight, favor corporate takeover wherever and whenever possible by imposing rigid farm-based accreditation systems, and so on.
“In an industrialised, highly consolidated food system geared to maximising profit by selling vast volumes of cheap food, pressure exists at every phase of the production chain to cut costs by cutting corners, including safe food practices. Moreover, the very scale of modern food production means that seemingly isolated lapses can become quite grave, subjecting millions of people to danger based on the actions of a single production facility.” To offer but one example, Peanut Corp. of
The company’s “history of sanitation lapses [includes repeated citations] in 2006 and 2007 for having dirty surfaces and grease residue and dirt buildup throughout the [company’s
“In another incident in 2009, a company called Beef Packers, owned by transnational agribusiness giant Cargill, had to declare two ‘voluntary recalls’ involving over 500 tonnes of ground beef infected with antibiotic-resistant salmonella. The USDA announced that consuming the suspect meat could cause ‘treatment failure’ – that is, death – because of its ability to withstand drugs. At least 39 people in 11 states reported getting sick, and more than 200,000 thousand kilos of the tainted meat was served to school children through the National School Lunch program.”
“The official response to such incidents has been minimal. In January 2011, a hotly debated piece of legislation called the Food Safety Modernisation Act was signed into being. The intention of the original Bill was to update and inject some resources into the
However, the “rules would not even touch the meat sector, the biggest source of food-borne illness in the
GRAIN’s well written and informative report states: “In the absence of stricter public action around food safety, corporations have moved to fill the void…A case in point: in the mid-2000s, a company called Beef Products Inc. had an ingenious idea: it would buy slaughterhouse scraps – which are extremely likely to be infected by bacterial pathogens – from large-scale beef processors at cut-rate prices. It would purée those parts into a paste, which it would then mix with ammonia to kill bacterial pathogens. It would sell the product back [to] the beef industry as a cheap filler for ground beef, with the added feature that the ammonia in the paste would sterilise the ground beef it was mixed with…The product, known in the industry as ‘pink slime’ for its distinctive look, could be found in 70% of hamburgers consumed in the United States by the end of the decade. The USDA's Food Safety Inspection Service, which oversees meat safety, applauded -- it recognised ‘pink slime’ as safe without requiring testing, on the grounds that it had been sterilised by ammonia. But in 2009, a New York Times exposé found that pink slime in fact tended to be ridden with pathogens -- and was actively adding to the pathogen load of the ground beef it was mixed with. Beef Products Inc. responded by merely upping the ammonia dose for its mix. To this day, the product remains widely used in the vast US ground beef market, including at fast-food chains nationwide.”
The USDA's Food Safety Inspection Service (FSIS), tasked with supervising the safety of the entire
Also, detailed in the report, is the importance “that FSIS take steps to strengthen its preventive controls over contaminated animals entering the slaughter plants because…significant weaknesses [were found] in how the agency recalls beef that is adulterated with residue [veterinary drugs, pesticides, and heavy metals] and yet has been released into the food supply. Although the agency can request that plants voluntarily recall this meat, it has not done so since 1979 according to an agency official. FSIS officials explained that recalls of meat contaminated with residue are difficult to enforce, because they cannot show that eating a single serving of the product is likely to result in immediate sickness or death, as would consuming a serving of beef adulterated with E. coli or Salmonella. Instead, the effects of residue are generally chronic as opposed to acute, which means that they will occur over time, as an individual consumes small traces of the residue.”
That a corporation has more power than the government, should come as no surprise. To give one example, after the rising number of cases of
Incidentally, GRAIN expressed that “Animal welfare is another issue altogether…By 2013, the EU will implement new standards on animal slaughter, including stunning, and these new norms will have to be followed by anyone planning to export meat to the EU.” While this is perhaps slightly encouraging, no international standards regarding animal welfare exist. And of course even with new standards––presumably progressive ones most favorable to the welfare of the animals themselves within concentrated feeding lot operations and slaughter factories, a rather audacious presumption to be sure––implemented, enforcement is an entirely different matter. Just as there are many hurdles to overcome from ideals to the books, there are many bureaucratic bottlenecks from the books to the real world. Though in reality, in the case of the EU, doctrinal “animal welfare” is perhaps principally about setting trade limitations aligned with EU preferences to support EU businesses, not actual animal welfare. It’s virtually nonexistent in the
GRAIN adeptly describes that “[t]he customers of these companies may appreciate such measures. But what about everyone else? The only accountability in such a system is to shareholders, not the public; private standards are all about the bottom line. To give one example…poultry companies in
The irony of industrial food health and safety is rather dramatic, given the unhealthful and unsafe conditions that arise from, and broaden out of, the industrial food system. The risks and detriment to human health alone are quite incredible. “In the
In terms of surveillance of pathogens, at least as of late October 2010, the US National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System does not test for MRSA.
“A staggering 61% of all human pathogens, and 75% of new human pathogens, are transmitted by animals, with many of the most dangerous – such as bird flu, BSE, swine flu and the Nypah virus – having emerged from intensive livestock farms. It is the way that animals are farmed that is fundamentally at issue.” One way the seriousness of an outbreak, such as that of “superbugs”, is epidemiologically measured, “is to compare it to the expected background occurrence of a disease. In the case of MRSA ST398, that background rate is zero. The strain’s an artifact of the overuse of antibiotics in agriculture. It’s really worth thinking about how many more such organisms we want to produce.” Indeed, it is also worth thinking about how many of these organisms already have been produced that are unidentified.
Globalization or the elitist global uniformity of everything is particularly troubling. GRAIN details the arrangement of the global supply chain as follows. “At the top stand the [gigantic] retailers [such as] Walmart [which alone] rings up annual food sales of US$405 billion – more than the annual GDP of Austria,
Instead of competitors, the mega four food retailers synergistically “work together, with input from the biggest food companies and agribusiness firms, to develop common standards for foods (from farming to packaging) that their suppliers have to follow. An example is GlobalGAP. In the context of a largely laissez-faire – [which is to say] industry-friendly – global food safety policy regime, these standards are emerging as the shadow food safety structure for much of the world…[T]hese gigantic companies are accountable to their shareholders – and to a small extent their customers – but to no one else.”
Moving down the hierarchy, there is the suppliers. “These are large companies that source and ship from around the globe, and increasingly from their own farms or from contract production schemes that they manage. Then there are the producers. More and more, production is centralised in ‘hubs’ or ‘zones’ where production of specific fruits or vegetables is cheap and organised according to the standards dictated by the supermarkets. Some well-known examples are grapes in
“Much has been said about how countries can position themselves to benefit from this global supermarket expansion. To gain access to supermarket shelves, local governments and donors devote huge resources to trying to build production capacity in poor countries. Supermarket growth is even portrayed as an ‘opportunity’ for small growers. The reality is quite different”.
“In most countries around the world, farming sectors are being rapidly restructured to make way for more agribusiness. With food safety standards playing a critical role in justifying new forms of corporate control, it is high time to reassess what food safety means. At present, it translates into ‘audit culture’, involving a transfer of power from people (consumers, small farmers, local food shops, markets, eateries) to the private sector (Cargill, Nestlé, Unilever, Walmart... It can instead be about local control and more community-based food and farming systems.”
Miscellaneous Thoughts and Observations
Putting aside morality, human and nonhuman, the corporate-capitalist-republican-democratic amalgamation, and the way of life it maintains through immense violence and abject domination has never been nor ever will be sustainable. It’s not a question of if humanity’s last empire, the deadliest of all, will collapse, but rather how soon, and how much violence and misery will ensue because the elites clinging to fleeting power refuse to change course from the current death throes were are in, let alone relinquish their supremacy, instead in favor of adjusting to a global climate which has been deliberately and systematically forcibly changed, all in order that human destructiveness and consumption might be maintained and expanded. That is of course assuming that the majority of the citizenry will remain unthreatening to the highly concentrated sectors of power. A big assumption to be sure, one conveyed as palpable, with no small measure of disinclination. If this culture will not voluntarily change, stop, and modify its collective behavior, which ostensibly is the case, it must be stopped, in any manner of ways, both minute and great, if there is to be any semblance of a decent future.
Empire Incorporated. The turning and churning of the living into the dead will quite probably be the undoing of us all and will cause unquantifiable greater destruction to the natural world and all her nonhuman descendants (which is already occurring at a rapid rate and a greater magnitude than ever before), if those some one percent in power are not emphatically stopped. Stopped very soon.
In the dominant culture we are disconnected and disassociated from the Natural world. Not even in the major organized religions, to my limited knowledge, namely Christianity, is the Natural world a primary concern. It is a shame, that we are lead to believe out of convenience for those in power, that the destruction of the earth is not evil. For it seems, that in a doctrinal sense, evil can only be quantified in terms of human to human relations and interrelations, and even then, the poor among us, are eschewed, casted by the directors of power as superfluous. The evil, so to speak, at the bottom of the hierarchy are critically confronted, rarely if at all at the top. Additionally, while the behavior itself, and those engaged in the unacceptable behavior, are admonished, locked up, tortured, killed, never is their own, or the overriding experience of culture looked at. For to look at the experience of the lowly criminal as it were, and the societal context in which the crime as it were, was committed, would be to look at one’s self in the mirror; not in the way of confidence. It seems an evil thing, a society which tolerates, which willfully allows a significant segment of its population to go impoverished, while simultaneously signaling crowning achievements of the rich––however these are measured and construed. Similarly, it seems evil, a society which tolerates, which willfully allows a significant segment of its population to be imprisoned for long sentences for nonviolent offenses, while simultaneously signaling crowning achievements of the rich, whose crimes, of course not considered crimes at all, are off the spectrum, for they adversely effect so many people’s lives, so many nonhumans, so much of the Natural world.
The living earth, Her oceans and forests that used to, and to a degree tragically smaller still do, burgeon with highly diverse, intelligent life, Her countless known and unknown genus’s of life, all with experiences delicately balanced and interconnected, Her brilliance, Her mountains, air, and on, has been, is being violently assaulted and abused in incredible ways. Imagine, the very being, or mega-being if you will, that nurses and tends to us and our every need; we, as a species, treat with utter antipathy and contempt. Irreparably harming, poisoning, and dominating, ironically and quite foolishly at our own peril. We marvel and delight no more at, and in, Her beauty, but rather at and in our own ugliness and the magnitude thereof, while we shriek to each other with fervor of the luster of our inflated ego, arguably fiat much like the entire currency of the world, namely the U.S. dollar. We rant of human ingenuity, progress, success, excess and so on, as the waste and wreckage of the earth and the effects become evermore impossible to ignore.
This obliteration is called “growth”, the extraction and exploitation of “resources” considered necessary, and “profitable”, the management of the destruction deemed “conservation”. In a word, the earth has been incorporated. Though, unlike a corporation, the earth, and certainly not her interconnected and interrelated nonhuman kin, has not been given the rights of a person. Which amounts in the case of the corporation to the rights of an ad infinitum super-person, insofar as rights can be and are bestowed, and insofar as rights can be and are protected. Specifically, the earth has been combined as one whole, that is to say, styled into the folds of, and by, industrial and post-industrial tyrannical institutions and their activities. The living earth and every being contained within, has been branded as a product or service for some type of human consumption within the monetary system, which is entirely based on oil, coal, natural gas, uranium, and so forth.
Sightseeing tours, fabulous cruises, high-dining on marine life born during the Napoleonic era, fashionable trends which applaud the attiring of the refined carcasses of the dead, be they worn on our feet, or covering our heads, to give some among a flood of examples. New, sublet industries emerge with the fast changing times within the industrial and post-industrial apparatus; in the energy sector alone, solar and wind are but two examples of this expansion. While far more preferable than the oil and coal companies, the incentives are hardly a match for the influence of the former, and a technological “fix” is rather counterintuitive, compounded by the fact that technology, and the ways in which it has by and large been used thus far, has paved a thoroughfare of destruction many times the world over.
Perhaps one of the most obvious examples of the destruction, the alteration, and domination of the Natural world is the institutions of zoos. Patrons pay to see Nature literally caged; the encapsulation of the Wild into objects, showcased and displayed for them and their children to gawk at. That there is a demand, or even a need (enslavement being the only sanctuary, the only alternative being the death of endangered species) for such institutions, is testament to the scale of the destruction, which continues, largely ignored or dismissed. That it is profitable is conceivably a testament to the universal sponsorship of the profit motive. “The idea of ‘life’” Barry Sanders wrote in Unsuspecting Souls, “or of ‘a life’ has a short history. It simply does not exist, for instance, in the ancient world. Some words come close: Bios, as in biology, means a range of things in Greek, including a ‘mode of life,’ ‘a manner of living,’ a ‘livelihood,’ or ‘means of living’; and zoe, as in words like ‘zoo’ and ‘zoological,’ refers to something that we try to capture in English with the word ‘aliveness.’”
The toxic mimic of taxidermy, (of course an industry itself), namely the industry of “stuffed animals”, be they real, or caricatures, which are given to children is one of plenty examples of the branding of everything, of the incorporation of everything into a product to be manufactured, bought and sold, then purchased, in this case by the mother or father or guardian for their children, at a retail store. Never-mind, that probably the bulk of “product” or “merchandise” we purchase, including stuffed animals, are constructed, crafted, assembled in sweatshop factories in the so called third world. Presumably, the environment is so harsh, the workers perpetually sweat, literally and figuratively, hence the term; it’s highly documented that the conditions of these factories, such as those run by Nike, the Gap, and so on, are utterly slavish.
As a child, I remember clinging to Mickey Mouse, night after night before falling asleep. The purchase was made at Disney World in
The expansion of human growth, development, and consumption is to such a degree at present, leaving virtually no refuge for the majority of the world’s nonhuman species to live their Natural and evolutionary lives. This is an intended and accepted consequence of civilization, though an extreme violation of the earth and the earth’s organic processes, which we, as well as our nonhuman co-inhabitants (100-200 species of which reportedly die daily), are clearly dependent upon in order to survive; a violation that contends with no precedent in all of history. Though it’s popularly denied, or merely ignored altogether. It shouldn’t be surprising really. If we take a casual look, at how we, human beings, treat each other, allow each other and ourselves to be treated, it’s little wonder we have such sickening disdain for the earth and all Her marvelous creatures. If the majority of us humans cannot even show each other elementary respect, tolerance, universe forbid, compassion, not to dare mention love, how could there be any optimism for our nonhuman victims?
Every 6.2 minutes there is a “forcible” rape in the
Roughly, some 4.5 percent of the
Journalist Stephanie Condon reported in late June 2011 that “[n]ational unemployment has lingered above 8 percent for longer than 28 straight months. Congress, meanwhile, is a club that consists of 245 millionaires. Based on 2009 data, there are currently 66 in the Senate and 179 in the House (among current voting members). So while just 1 percent of Americans are millionaires, 66 percent of senators are millionaires, as are 41 percent of House members.” Moreover, “[m]embers of the House and Senate made investments [in 2009] in a number of companies that have a strong presence on Capitol Hill, spending large sums on lobbying efforts and political donations. The most popular company among members of Congress…was General Electric, in which 82 current members invested. The second most popular company was Bank of America, which 63 members invested in.” Obviously this is a functioning kleptocracy and a dysfunctional republic, as well as a defective democracy as it were.
Giving one example, Glenn Greenwald succinctly explains how the power system works. “Given the clarity of this law [Article 2 of the Convention Against Torture] and its multiple reiterations, what can explain the resolve of the political and media class to ignore it? Why do ostensibly adverse factions leap to one another’s defense even in cases of egregious criminality, with Democrats shielding Republicans, media figures demanding no transparency or accountability for political officials, self-proclaimed populist politicians devoting themselves to the protection of Wall Street? One easy answer is that those factions are not really adversaries, at least not in any way that counts. All their members belong to the same class — the powerful and the elite — and thus are motivated, as discussed, to defend an immunity that they might one day need themselves.”
Greenwald continues, stating that “[i]n this world, it is perfectly fine to say that a president is inept or even somewhat corrupt. A titillating, tawdry sex scandal, such as the Bill Clinton brouhaha, can be fun, even desirable as a way of keeping entertainment levels high. Such revelations are all just part of the political cycle. But to acknowledge that our highest political officials are felons (which is what people are, by definition, who break our laws) or war criminals (which is what people are, by definition, who violate the laws of war) is to threaten the system of power, and that is unthinkable. Above all else, media figures are desperate to maintain the current power structure, as it is their role within it that provides them with prominence, wealth, and self-esteem. Their prime mandate then becomes protecting and defending
A case in
The Bolivian legal system has undergone radical changes in recent years; “following a change of constitution in 2009, [Bolivian law] has been heavily influenced by a resurgent indigenous Andean spiritual world view which places the environment and the earth deity known as the Pachamama at the centre of all life. Humans are considered equal to all other entities.” While industry will not cease, ostensibly it will by highly mitigated, at least that is the intent. The mining of tin, silver, gold and other raw materials has caused severe environmental devastation in
It’s worth quoting some excerpts from South African environmental lawyer Cormac Cullinan in an April 22, 2010 interview with Amy Goodman, Democracy Now!.
“What we’re saying is that everything has inherent rights. By virtue of the fact that the earth exists and all other creatures and mountains and rivers exist, they must also have inherent rights. At least the right to exist, to play their part in the evolutionary processes of Mother Earth. So the problem is, because we’ve only recognized human rights, we’ve created an imbalance. So human rights trump everything else, because they don’t have rights. And we’re trying to redress that balance by recognizing the rights which surround human rights.”
Cullinan further stated that “our legal systems are aimed at controlling and dominating nature, essentially, and…we need to change to an attitude of participation, and…wildness, in a sense, is a kind of a synonym for the natural creative energy of the universe, and…we need laws that enable that to flourish, rather than attempt to dominate it.”
The current state of affairs, namely, the destructive culture on its death kneel, certainly can change, and must if there is to be a chance for a decent future. Collectively, we would be wise, to seriously consider how we might fundamentally alter the present course we find ourselves barreling down, and rise to the occasion to do so. For a failure to fully learn, concede, and correct, utilizing any methods approximated, the many problems which stem directly and indirectly from the industrial post-industrial civilized system is sure to bring a dismal future for humanity as well as all of non-humanity. We have glimpses of that future now, for it is foreshadowed within every facet of civilized life. At present, it seems we are severely flunking our cosmic test. The earth, namely, Natural Law, will not indefinitely tolerate globally impactful human activities and meddling. There is no reason we cannot ascertain to rectify the peril we have created for our selves and for the earth. We have collectively chosen a path of destruction which is ensured; the choice is ours to reverse that course. Our continued existence, as well as the continued existence of inestimable nonhuman beings depends upon that reversal. The earth, She beckons us to cease turning heaven into hell.
 "Food and climate change: the forgotten link," GRAIN (28 September 2011), http://www.grain.org/article/entries/4357-food-and-climate-change-the-forgotten-link (accessed November 1, 2011).
 Smith, P., D. Martino, Z. Cai, D. Gwary, H. Janzen, P. Kumar, B. McCarl, S. Ogle, F. O’Mara, C. Rice, B. Scholes, O. Sirotenko, 2007: Agriculture. In Climate Change 2007: Mitigation. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [B. Metz, O.R. Davidson, P.R. Bosch, R. Dave, L.A. Meyer (eds)], Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA. [pg 499] https://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/assessment-report/ar4/wg3/ar4-wg3-chapter8.pdf (accessed November 1 2011)
 "World Greenhouse Gas Emissions: 2005," World Resources Institue (July 2, 2009), http://www.wri.org/chart/world-greenhouse-gas-emissions-2005 (accessed November 1, 2011).
 Kevin A. Baumert, Timothy Herzog, and Jonathan Pershing, "Navigating the Numbers Greenhouse Gas Data and International Climate Policy," World Resources Institute (2005): 85, http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/28/43/36448807.pdf (accessed November 1, 2011).
 See Note 103
 See Note 102
 Tristram Stuart, "Food waste facts," WASTE (2009), http://www.tristramstuart.co.uk/FoodWasteFacts.html (accessed November 1, 2011).
 See Note 103
 "Food safety for whom? Corporate wealth versus people's health ," GRAIN (06 May 2011), http://www.grain.org/article/entries/4230-food-safety-for-whom-corporate-wealth-versus-people-s-health
(accessed November 1, 2011).
 "Viewing cable 07PARIS4723, FRANCE AND THE WTO AG BIOTECH CASE," Wikileaks (2007-12-14), http://wikileaks.ch/cable/2007/12/07PARIS4723.html
 See Note 111
 Roni Caryn Rabin, "Peanut Plant Had History of Health Lapses ," The
 Rob Waters, "Peanut Corp. Shipped Product After Finding Salmonella (Update1) ," Bloomberg (January 27, 2009), http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=newsarchive&sid=aeXwqlMnIWU0 (accessed November 1, 2011).
 See Note 111
 Gil H. Harden, "FSIS National Residue Program for Cattle," U.S. Department of Agriculture Office of Inspector General (March 25, 2010): 17, http://www.usda.gov/oig/webdocs/24601-08-KC.pdf (accessed November 1, 2011).
 Ibid; pg 28
 "Wal-Mart Will Require Stricter Safety Tests For Beef Suppliers ," Drovers Cattle Network (April 29, 2010 ), http://www.cattlenetwork.com/cattle-news/latest/wal-mart-will-require-stricter-safety-tests-for-beef-suppliers-114326579.html (accessed November 2, 2011).
 See Note 111
 "CDC estimates 94,000 invasive drug-resistant staph infections occurred in the
(accessed November 2, 2011).
 Maryn McKenna, "Alarm over “pig MRSA” — but not in the
 See Note 111
 Maryn McKenna, "Pigs, antibiotics, and staph where it shouldn’t be," Wired (September 16, 2010), http://www.wired.com/wiredscience/2010/09/pigs-antibiotics-and-staph-where-it-shouldnt-be/ (accessed November 2, 2011).
 See Note 111
 Barry Sanders, Unsuspecting Souls: The Disappearance of the Human Being, (
 FBI, "Crime Clock." Last modified 2010. Accessed October 31, 2011. http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/cjis/ucr/crime-in-the-u.s/2010/crime-in-the-u.s.-2010/offenses-known-to-law-enforcement/crime-clock.
 Wong, Venessa . Bloomberg , "Countries with the Most Millionaires 2010." Last modified 2010. Accessed November 7, 2011. http://images.businessweek.com/ss/10/06/0615_global_millionaires/2.htm.
 Stephanie Condon, "Why is Congress a millionaires club?," CBS News ( June 30, 2011), http://www.cbsnews.com/8301-503544_162-20075586-503544.html (accessed November 7, 2011).
 Stephanie Condon, "Number of Millionaires in Congress: 261," CBS News ( November 17, 2010 ), http://www.cbsnews.com/8301-503544_162-20023147-503544.html (accessed November 7, 2011).
 Excerpted from With Liberty and Justice for Some: How the Law is Used to Destroy Equality and Protect the Powerful by Glenn Greenwald, published October 25th by Metropolitan Books, an imprint of Henry Holt and Company, LLC. Copyright © 2011 by Glenn Greenwald. All rights reserved. http://original.antiwar.com/glenn-greenwald/2011/10/31/americas-elites-look-out-for-each-other/ (Accessed November 1 2011)
 John Vidal, "
 Democracy Now!, "