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Nice Dissent From Ireland
On December 11, 2000, an important European Treaty was nearing completion. On this day, the political leaders of the European Union were gathered in secret meetings in the city of Nice to reach agreement on the Nice Treaty. The Treaty was agreed to by the European leaders, who were securely hidden from the presence of tens of thousands of uninvited protestors, and now had to be signed by representatives of the 15 member states.
The Foreign Ministers of the 15 member states signed the Nice Treaty during a ceremony on February 26, 2001. All that was left at this point was ratification by each country. This would not be a difficult process, since 14 of the 15 countries of the European Union could ratify the Treaty through parliamentary approval alone. So, the Nice Treaty was quickly ratified by the great majority of member states (the Treaty is still being reviewed within the Belgian Parliament). There was just one small obstacle remaining and this was the Republic of Ireland.
The ratification of the Nice Treaty required an amendment to the Irish Constitution, which therefore needed the approval of the Irish people in a referendum set for June 7, 2001. The Irish establishment supported the Treaty, as defeat in the referendum would pose a serious threat to the political and financial leaders of Ireland. Fianna Fáil and Fine Gael, the two largest political parties, urged the Irish people to pass the referendum. Political leaders of other European countries advised the Irish to do the same. The Catholic Church told its members to pass the Treaty. The leaders of the major trade unions encouraged their workers to accept the Treaty. The national media provided its support from day one. Economic and financial experts warned of the dire consequences of rejecting the referendum, stating that Ireland needed the Treatythe Irish people should do what they were being told.
But they didnt. Despite the determinations of every elite section of Irish society, the Irish people voted 54 percent to 46 percent against the Treaty. The result was an enormous success for grassroots activists throughout the country and proved their campaign struck a chord with the Irish people. As for the supporters of the Treaty, no time was wasted in attacking the Irish vote. The mass media throughout Europe labeled Irish voters as mad and selfish. The Catholic Church and trade union leaders were publicly humbled and questioned the publics decision.
Irish political leaders are calling a second referendum on the Nice Treaty asking voters to change their minds in the October general election. The reaction to the Irish rejection of the Treaty shows that dissent from the European Unions planned development is unacceptable and analysis of the Nice Treaty illustrates exactly what this development entails.
Before Irish voters made their decision in June 2001, two central themes dominated the public debate on the Nice Treaty, European enlargement and Irish neutrality. Supporters of the Treaty stressed the importance of European enlargement and guaranteed the continuance of Irish neutrality. They explained that the Nice Treaty would amend previous treaties and allow more countries to join the European Union. This would occur without any threat to Irish neutrality. Groups opposed to the Treaty, including the Green Party, Sinn Féin, Socialist Party, Socialist Worker Party, Workers Solidarity Movement, and other Anarchist Groups, PANA (the Peace and Neutrality Alliance), and AFRI (Action From Ireland), agreed that the Nice Treaty is indeed about enlargement, as it hopes to increase the power of larger countries over smaller countries within the decision making process of the European Union. The European Union is currently made up of 15 member states: Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. Supporters of the Nice Treaty have claimed that several more countries are expected to join and that Nice allows enlargement to occur. This is only partly true and was used during public debate as a distraction from the real issues of enlargement.
It is true that Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, and Slovenia are all countries that are currently in accession negotiations with the EU. Turkey has also been given candidate status within these negotiations. However, the first difficulty with the enlargement argument arises with the conditions of the Amsterdam Treaty, ratified in 1998. The Amsterdam Treaty provided for the addition of five more Member States to the European Union. In an interview with the Irish Times, the EU Commission president, Romano Prodi, stated: Legally, ratification of the Nice Treaty is not necessary for enlargement. This does not mean that the Irish Referendum is not important. But, from this specific point-of-view, enlargement is possible without Nice.
Technically, the European Union already has the legal framework to expand. It has had this ability since 1998, yet no country has joined since the Amsterdam Treaty. The Nice Treaty amends the Amsterdam Treaty by increasing the number of countries allowed to join the European Union, but most importantly, it amends the conditions under which the enlargement would take place. The Treaty primarily performs institutional changes within the EU, insuring that larger countries will maintain and gain power when new countries join. The first example of this occurs within the Council of Ministers. Presently, each member state is allocated a number of votes roughly based on the member states population. The Nice Treaty adjusts the present numbers and distributes more power upwards towards the larger countries. The table below illustrates this change.
Ireland and other smaller countries like it will lose power. The same change occurs within the European Parliament. Ireland currently has 15 of the 626 members of the European Parliament. After the Nice Treatys implementation, Ireland will lose 3 members, then having only 12 of 837 members of parliament.
The Nice Treaty will also change the operation of the European Commission. Under Nice, the European Council will be able to decide how many Commissioners there should be, when and if the EU reaches 27 member states. The Nice Treaty further states that there must be less than 27 Commissioners. Membership of the Commission would then rotate among member states. Therefore, smaller countries that hold their Commissioner crucial to fair representation within the EU, like Ireland, would lose their Commissioner for uncertain lengths of time.
The Nice Treaty prepares the European Union for a more hierarchal and undemocratic system of operation. The assertion that the Nice Treaty is designed primarily for the addition of member states to the European Union is incorrect. Statements on enlargement must be considered within the overall context of Europe, just as the claims of Irish neutrality should be examined with respect to certain developments.
The second major theme put forward in the debate leading up to the referendum was the issue of Irish military neutrality. Supporters of the Nice Treaty state that Irish neutrality remains genuine, since Ireland will not be part of any military alliance after Nice. This statement was an oversimplification, as critics of Nice were quickly able to cite history and the implications of Nice to show quite the opposite.
It is true that the Republic of Ireland has always claimed to be militarily neutral. This, however, is more in theory than practice. Throughout history, Irish policy has always favored the military program of the United States of America. Most recently, Shannon Airport has played a crucial role in this agenda. It was used as a stopover for the U.S. military during the Gulf War and the Irish government recently gave permission for the U.S. military to use Shannon Airport as a stopover en route to Afghanistan. This decision was put forward without consulting the Dáil or the Irish people. The Irish government also continues to remain silent regarding the recent targeting of Iraq.
It has become even more difficult for Ireland to claim neutrality as several areas in Ireland are used in the production of military components for the United States. Action From Ireland has reported extensively on the Irish involvement in the international arms trade. AFRI has listed more than a dozen companies located in Ireland that produce goods for arms manufacturers. Most of the companies produce dual-use technology, which they sell to arms manufacturers, but some of these companies produce military goods, which have no purpose other than to be used as part of weapons systems.
More recently, Raytheon, the third largest arms manufacturer in the U.S., maker of the Tomahawk and Patriot missile, announced that it is setting up a plant in County Derry. The Derry plant is said to be making hi-tech software, but it has recently been given an 800 million pound grant by the British Ministry of Defense. The irony of this little endeavor has us all scared.
Added to Irelands historical practices and current military manufacturing, the Nice Treaty aims to further establish the European Rapid Reaction Force. The RRF was first created by the Amsterdam Treaty and is the foundation of a European Army. It consists of land, sea, and air forces from EU member states. The RRF is made up of a 60,000 strong force (with 200,000 plus in reserve) and will allow Europe to place an army into a battle zone for up to one year. It is supposed to be capable of operating 4,000 kilometers away from continental Europein areas such as Africa and the Middle East. If this doesnt sound enough like a NATO force, theres more. One of the annexes of the Nice Treaty specifies that the NATO Secretary General should attend EU Ministerial meetings and there should be regular meetings between EU and NATO military committee and staffs.
Historically, Irish policy has favored the United States military project. The Irish government, without the approval of the Irish people, entered the Partnership for Peace, a NATO front organization. However, and this is very important, the Irish people have never before agreed to be officially part of a colonial power. The people of Ireland have seen, and continue to see, the violence and destruction inflicted by colonialism. The military project advanced by the Nice Treaty will irreversibly change Irelands historical stance on colonialism. Europes military philosophy behind the Treaty of Nice becomes even clearer when considered with regard to its economic strategy.
A major issue left untouched by the national media in Ireland is the neoliberal economic policy advanced by the Nice Treaty. Ireland is no stranger to the push to privatize advanced by the EU. Aer Lingus, the state-owned airline, and ESB, the state-owned electric company, are facing pressure from the EU to privatize. The Nice Treaty aims to facilitate the process of privatization in Ireland and other member states.
European industry lobby groups campaigned to influence the negotiations on the Nice Treaty well before the closed meetings of December 11 took place. One of the main corporate demands was for further centralization of the EUs decision-making on international trade, through changes in the EU Treatys Article 133. The Nice Treaty will expand the European Commissions powers over WTO issues, by altering the voting procedures of the European Union. The goal of the Commission was to get full competence to negotiate on behalf of the EU and to introduce qualified majority voting on the important areas where unanimity is needed.
The Nice Treaty grants the EU the ability to quickly pass European policy, without having to be concerned with public discourse. By providing larger countries with more voting power, the introduction of qualified majority voting will be able to further suppress the opinions of smaller countries. In just one treaty, the EU has eliminated the need for unanimity in several areas of decision-making, and has allowed the larger countries to dominate these areas. Although the European Commission had also hoped to amend current investment and competition policies to make negotiations on investment agreement easier, the Nice Treaty signifies a great success for the European elite.
It therefore comes as no surprise that the European elite was angered with Irelands rejection of the Nice Treaty. Since the publics decision on Nice, the Irish government has scrambled to find a solution to appease Europe. But this has proven to be very difficult, as Europe will not change the Nice Treaty for Ireland. The Irish government was forced to find a way to offer the same referendum to the Irish people, while claiming that it was different to the first one. The result was predictable.
The Seville Declaration and Nice II
Supporters of the Nice Treaty, the sequel, are claiming that neutrality has now been secured with the governments National Declaration at the Seville European Council on June 21, 2002. The Seville Declaration states that Ireland will continue its policy of military neutrality and that it will not be part of a European Army. It also maintains that Ireland will make a sovereign decision on whether Irish troops should participate in humanitarian crisis management tasks mounted by the EU, based on the triple lock of UN endorsement, Government decision, and Dáil approval. Lastly, the Seville Declaration states that Ireland will not adopt any future common defense policy or European treaty that may threaten Irish neutrality without the approval of the Irish people through a referendum.
As soon as these Declarations were made, many Irish people could immediately recognize the lies. The Declarations say there will be no EU armybut Ireland is already sending 850 troops, or 7.4 percent of its army, to join the Rapid Reaction Force. Seville also promises a referendum if there are further moves to a common defense force, but this has been said before. In 1997, the government promised a referendum before entering the Partnership for Peace and then broke its promise. Furthermore, the Declarations do nothing to affect the collaboration between NATO and the European Union.
The Seville Declarations are similar to the offers made to the Danish people in 1993. Danish voters rejected the Maastricht Treaty in 1992. They were then offered provisional opt outs on issues on defense and the single currency. The Seville Declarations offer much less to the Irish people, but the Irish government is entering its second Nice campaign with enormous effort to compensate. The government is producing information pamphlets on the Nice Treaty, which will be distributed to every household in the country at a cost of 1 million Euro to the Irish taxpayer. The Labour Party, the third largest party in Ireland, has now joined the governments campaign. The government will also continue to receive the support of the same elite factions of Irish society that it did during the first referendum.
Activists throughout Ireland will now face another powerful opposition for the second Nice Referendum in October. The smaller political parties and independent groups that fought the first referendum, and are back once again for this one. This second campaign has similar resources and will incorporate the same strategy of grassroots organizing.
The story from Ireland provides insight into the direction of Europe. That Ireland is the only country in Europe to hold a national referendum on such an important Treaty shows the EUs distrust of public decision on European policy. There is no doubt that Europe plans to develop into a more militaristic and centralized world power and they will not accept dissent from their plans. This October, the Irish people have the chance to speak out against not only Nice, but also the current European project. Things could get interesting.
Z Magazine Archive
AnnouncementsLABOR - May 1 is May Day. Workers of the world will celebrate the 124th anniversary of International Worker’s Day. Born out of a call for an 8-hour workday in the United States, this day is an opportunity for all workers to show their solidarity with one another, as well as to renew the call for labor rights.
FARM CONFERENCE - The Farm Conference on Community and Sustainability will be held May 24-26 in Summertown, TN, in partnership with the Fellowship of Intentional Communities. Tour green homes, see sustainable food production, learn about solar installations, alternative education, midwifery, and more.
Contact: Douglas@thefarmcommunity.com; http://www.thefarmcommunity.com/.
PALESTINE - The Conference of the Palestinian Shatat in North American will be held June 3-5 in Vancouver. The conference will examine the future of the Palestinian liberation movement.
Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org; http://www.palestinianconference.org/.
LABOR - The Pacific Northwest Labor History Association’s 45th annual conference will be held May 3-5, in Portland, OR. This year’s theme is Labor Under Attack: Learning from the Past and Preparing for the Future. A call for presentations, workshops and papers is currently underway.
Contact: PNLHA, 27920 68th Ave. East, Graham, WA 98338; 206-406-2604; PNLHA1@aol.com; http://www3.telus.net.
MARIJUANA - On the first Saturday of May marijuana legalization activists will hold informational and educational events, rallies and marches in over 300 cities around the world.
ECONOMICS - The Union For Radical Political Economics will hold its 39th annual conference May 9-11 in New York City.
RECLAIM THE DREAM - The 2013 Poor People’s Campaign & March from Baltimore to Washington D.C. will be May 11. Communities, schools and unions interested in participating are encouraged to contact the Baltimore People’s Assembly.
Contact: 410-500-2168; 410-218-4835; BaltimorePeoplesAssembly@gmail.com; Southern Christian Leadership Conference of Baltimore and the Baltimore Peoples Power Assembly, 2011 N. Charles St., Baltimore, MD 21218.
MOTHER’S DAY - The 17th Annual Mother’s Day Walk For Peace will be May 12th, in Dorchester, MA. The walk began in 1996 for families who had lost children to violence. The day has become a way for thousands of people to financially support the work of the Louis Brown Peace Institute.
Contact: http://www.ldbpeaceinstitute.org/; http://mothersdaywalk4peace.org/.
NATO 5 - An International Week of Solidarity with the NATO 5 has been called for May 16-21. Supports call on supporters to raise awareness of the NATO 5 and support funds for the defendants on the one-year anniversary of their preemptive arrests.
Contact: email@example.com; https://nato5support.wordpress.com.
MOUNTAINTOP - The 2013 Mountain Justice Summer Activist Training Camp will be held May 19-27 in Damascus, VA. It will be a week of workshops, field trips to view Mountain Top Removal coal mines, direct actions, and service project.
FEMINIST SCI-FI - The feminist science fiction convention WisCon 37 is scheduled for May 24-27 in Madison, WI.
Contact: WisCon, ? SF3, PO Box 1624, Madison, WI 53701; firstname.lastname@example.org; http://www.wiscon.info/.
ANARCHY FEST - A month-long Festival of Anarchy is scheduled for May in Montreal. The festival includes The Montreal Anarchist Bookfair (May 19-20).
Contact: http://www.anarchistbookfair.ca/; http://www.radicalmontreal.com/.
LABOR - The International Labor Rights Forum will present: Down the Supply Chain, Driving Corporate Accountability, on May 22 in Washington, DC. The Labor Rights Awards Ceremony and Reception will honor pioneers in supply chain worker organizing, working solidarity and international labor rights policy.
MULTICULTURE - The 26th annual National Conference on Race & Ethnicity in American Higher Education (NCORE) will take place May 28-June 1, in New Orleans.
Contact: SWCHRS, 3200 Marshall Avenue, Suite 290, Norman, OK 73072; 405-325-3694; email@example.com; www.ncore.ou.edu.
MEDIA - The 2013 Alliance for Community Media Annual Conference will be held May 29-31, in San Francisco, CA. Participants will include educators, community leaders, media professionals, journalists, nonprofit leaders, policymakers and students.
RADIO - The 38th Annual Community Radio Conference is schedule for May 29-June 1, in San Francisco, CA, with discussions and workshops.
Contact: 1101 Pennsylvania Ave. NW, Suite 600, Washington, DC 20004; 202-756-2268; firstname.lastname@example.org; http://www.nfcb.org/.
BRADLEY MANNING - On June 1, a rally will be held at Fort Meade in support of Bradley Manning.
BIKES - Bikes Not Bombs is holding its 24th annual Bike-A-Thon and Green Roots Festival in Boston, MA on June 3, with several bike rides scheduled, music, exhibitors and more.
Contact: Bikes Not Bombs, 284 Amory St., Jamaica Plain, MA 02130; 617-522-0222; email@example.com; www.bikesnotbombs.org.
LEFT FORUM - The 2013 Left Forum will be held June 7-9, at Pace University in New York City.
Contact: 365 Fifth Avenue, CUNY Graduated Center, ? Sociology Dept., New York, NY 10016; http://www.leftforum.org/.
VEGAN FEST - Mad City Vegan Fest will be held in Madison, WI, June 8. The annual event features food, speakers, and exhibitors.
Contact: 122 State Street, Suite 405 B, Madison, WI 53701; firstname.lastname@example.org; http://veganfest.org/.
ADC CONFERENCE - The American-Arab Anti-Discrimination Committee (ADC) holds its annual conference June 13-16, in Washington, DC, with panel discussions and workshops on civil rights, media and other topics.
Contact: 1990 M Street, Suite 610, Washington, DC, 20036; 202-244-2990; email@example.com http://convention.adc.org/.
CUBA/SOCIALISM - A Cuban-North American Dialog on Socialist Renewal and Global Capitalist Crisis will be held in Havana, Cuba, June 16-30. There will be a 5 day Seminar at University of Havana, plus visits to a cooperative, urban garden, community development project, social research centers, and educational & medical institutions.
Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org; http://www.globaljusticecenter.org/.
NETROOTS - The 8th Annual Netroots Nation conference will take place June 20-23 in San Jose, CA. The event features panels, trainings, networking, screenings, and keynotes.
Contact: 164 Robles Way, #276, Vallejo, CA 94591; email@example.com; http://www.netrootsnation.org/.
MEDIA - The 15th annual Allied Media Conference will be held June 20-23, in Detroit.
Contact: 4126 Third Street, Detroit, MI 48201; http://alliedmedia.org/.
GRASSROOTS - The United We Stand Festival will be hosted by Free & Equal, June 22 in Little Rock, Arkansas. The festival aims to reform the electoral process throughout the U.S.
SOCIALISM - The Socialism 2013 Conference is scheduled for June 27-30 in Chicago, featuring talks and panel discussions.
Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org; http://www.socialismconference.org.
LITERACY - The National Association for Media Literacy Education (NAMLE) will hold its conference July 12-13 in Los Angeles under the heading, Intersections: Teaching and Learning Across Media.
Contact: 10 Laurel Hill Drive, Cherry Hill, NJ 08003; http://namle.net/conference/.
IWW - The North American Work People’s College will take place July 12-16 at Mesaba Co-op Park in northern Minnesota. The event will bring together Wobblies from branches across the continent to learn new skills and build One Big Union.
PEACESTOCK - On July 13th, the 11th Annual Peacestock: A Gathering for Peace, will take place at Windbeam Farm in Hager City, WI. The event is a mixture of music, speakers and community for peace. Sponsored by Veterans for Peace.
Contact: Bill Habedank, 1913 Grandview Ave., Red Wing, MN 55066; 651-388-7733; email@example.com; http://www.peacestockvfp.org.
CHILDREN’S DEFENSE - July 15-19, join clergy, seminarians, Christian educators, young adult leaders and other faith-based advocates for children at CDF Haley Farm in Clinton, Tennessee, for five days of spiritual renewal, networking, movement building workshops, and continuing education about the urgent needs of children at the 19th annual Proctor Institute for Child Advocacy Ministry.
Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org; http://www.childrensdefense.org.
ACTIVIST CAMP - Youth Empowered Action (YEA) Camp will have sessions in July and August in Ben Lomond, CA; Portland, OR; Charlton, MA. YEA Camp is designed for activists 12-17 years old who want to make a difference in the world.
Contact: email@example.com; http://yeacamp.org/.
LA RAZA - The annual National Council of La Raza (NCLR) Conference is scheduled for July 18-19 in New Orleans, with workshops, presentations and panel discussions.
Contact: NCLR Headquarters Office, Raul Yzaguirre Building, 1126 16th Street, NW, Washington, DC 20036; 202-785-1670; www.nclr.org.
LABOR - The Eastern Conference For Workplace Democracy: Growing Our Cooperatives, Growing Our Communities, will be held at Drexel University in Philadelphia, PA, July 26-28.
Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org; http://east.usworker.coop/.
WOMEN/LYNNE STEWART- Radical Women is asking for support letters and cards to be sent to Lynne Stewart. Stewart is a civil rights attorney and political prisoner who is currently in jail. She has breast cancer and authorities have denied her request for transfer from her Texas prison to the New York City hospital where she received medical attention during a prior bout of breast cancer. Send messages and cards to: Lynne Stewart 53504-054, Federal Medical Center Carswell, P.O. Box 27137, Fort Worth, TX 76127.
Contact: 747 Polk Street, San Francisco, CA 94109; 415-864-1278; RadicalWomenUS@gmail.com; http://lynnestewart.org/; http://www.radicalwomen.org/.
HAITI/WOMEN - Haiti’s government is considering a legal reform measure that would prohibit and punish all sexual assault, including marital rape. MADRE and the International Campaign to Stop Rape & Gender Violence in Conflict are launching a petition to raise international support for this push to address violence against women in Haiti.
Contact: 121 West 27th Street, #301, New York, NY 10001; 212-627-0444; email@example.com; http://www.madre.org.
SYRIA/MIDDLE EAST - The Middle East Children’s Alliance (MECA) is currently seeking funds to assist more than 200,000 refugees fleeing violence in Syria.
FOLK FESTIVAL - The Falcon Ridge Folk Festival will be held August 2-4, in the Berkshires, NY.
Contact: http://www.falconridgefolk.com/; firstname.lastname@example.org.
WAR RESISTERS - The War Resisters League will hold its 90th anniversary conference, Revolutionary Nonviolence: Building Bridges Across Generations and Communities, August 1-4, at Georgetown University. The event will focus on the U.S.’ long history of antimilitarism.
Contact: 339 Lafayette Street, New York, NY 10012; 212-228-0450; email@example.com; http://www.warresisters.org.
POPULAR ECONOMICS - The Center for Popular Economics is holding its 2013 Summer Institute August 4-9 at Hampshire College in Amherst, MA. No background in economics is needed for this intensive training. This year’s theme is, The Care Economy: Building a Just Economy with a Heart.
Contact: Center for Popular Economics, PO Box 785 Amherst, MA 01004; 413-545-0743; firstname.lastname@example.org; www.populareconomics.org.
VETERANS - Veterans for Peace is holding the 28th annual convention August 6-11 in Madison, WI. This year’s theme is, Power To The Peaceful.
DEMOCRACY - The Democracy Convention will take place August 7-11 in Madison, WI. The convention brings together nine conferences including topics such as media, education, defense, race, environment and others.
MEN - The 38th National Conference on Men & Masculinity: Forging Justice: Creating Safe, Equal and Accountable Communities, presented in partnership with HAVEN, will be held in Detroit, MI, August 8-10.
Contact: email@example.com; http://www.nomas.org/.
OCCUPY - An Occupy National Gathering will be held in Kalamazoo, MI, August 21-25.
Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org; http://occupynationalgathering.net/.
COMMUNITIES - The Communities Conference is a networking and learning opportunity for co-operative or communal lifestyles, with workshops, events and entertainment; scheduled for August 30-September 2 at the Twin Oaks Community in Louisa, Virginia.
LABOR DAY - The 29th annual Bread and Roses Festival, a celebration of the ethnic diversity and labor history of Lawrence, MA, will be held September 2, in honor of the 1912 Bread and Roses Strike. There will be music, dance, poetry, drama, ethnic food, historical demonstrations, walking & trolley tours.
Contact: PO Box 1137, Lawrence, MA 01842; 978-794-1655; http://www.breadandrosesheritage.org/.
OCCUPY WALL STREET - September 17 is the two-year anniversary of the Occupy Wall Street movement. Events are planned in New York City and worldwide.
TEACHERS - The 13th Annual Conference, “Teaching for Social Justice: The Politics of Pedagogy,” will be held October 12 in San Francisco, CA. The free event features workshops, resources, and free childcare.
Contact: 415-676-7844; email@example.com; http://www.t4sj.org/.
HAITI - International Action, which brings clean water and chlorinators to Haiti, seeks office space capable of housing up to six people and their office equipment.
Contact: Zach Bremer, Zbrehmer@haitiwater.org; 202-488-0735; http://www.haitiwater.org/.
MEDIA - The Union for Democratic Communications and Project Censored are sponsoring a joint conference on media democracy, media activism and social justice to be held November 1-3 at the University of San Francisco. Proposals for presentations, workshops and panels from activists and critical scholars are invited.