Three weeks ago, while looking for something else, I came across one of the most extraordinary documents I have ever read. It relates to an organisation called Arise, which stands for Associates for Research into the Science of Enjoyment. Though largely forgotten today, in the 1990s it was one of the world's most influential public health groups. First I should explain what it claimed to stand for.
Arise was founded in 1988 and seems to have been active until 2004. It described itself as "a worldwide association of eminent scientists who act as independent commentators"(1). Its purpose, these eminent scientists claimed, was to show how "everyday pleasures, such as eating chocolate, smoking, drinking tea, coffee and alcohol, contribute to the quality of life."(2)
It maintained that there were good reasons for dropping our inhibitions and indulging ourselves. "Scientific studies show that enjoying the simple pleasures in life, without feeling guilty, can reduce stress and increase resistance to disease. ... Conversely, guilt can increase stress and undermine the immune system ... This can lead to, for instance, forgetfulness, eating disorders, heart problems or brain damage."(3) The "health police", as Arise sometimes called them(4), could be causing more harm than good.
Arise received an astonishing amount of coverage. Between September 1993 and March 1994, for example, it generated 195 newspaper articles and radio and television interviews, in places like the Wall Street Journal, the International Herald Tribune, the Independent, the Evening Standard, El Pais, La Repubblica, RAI and the BBC(5). Much of this coverage resulted from a Mori poll, called "Naughty but Nice", that Arise claimed to have commissioned, into the guilty pleasures people enjoyed most. Here is a typical example (this one was written by Reuters):
"Puritanical health workers who dictate whether people should smoke or drink alcohol and coffee are trying to ruin the quality of life, a group of academics said. ... "Many of us hold the view that it is a person's right to enjoy these pleasures ...," said Professor David Warburton, a professor of pharmacology at Reading University in England. ... "Much of health promotion is based on misinformation. It is politically driven"."(6)
The Today programme gave David Warburton an uncontested interview in the prime spot - at 8.20am. He extolled the calming properties of cigarettes and poured scorn on public health messages(7). Arise has also featured three times in the Guardian. Coverage like this continued until October 2004, when the Times repeated Arise's claim that we should stop "worrying about often ill-founded health scares" and "listen to our bodies, which naturally seek to protect themselves from disease by doing the things we enjoy."(8) In hundreds of articles and transcripts covering its assertions, I have found just one instance of a journalist - Madeleine Bunting in the Guardian - questioning either Arise's science or the motivation of the scientists(9).
The man who claimed to run the group, Professor David Warburton, was head of psychopharmacology at the University of Reading. During the period in which it was active, he published at least a dozen articles on nicotine in the academic press. In 1989, in The Psychologist, he mocked the finding by the US Surgeon-General that nicotine is addictive(10). Most of his articles were published in the journal Psychopharmacology, of which he was a senior editor. They maintained that nicotine improved both attention and memory. I have read seven of these papers(11). On none of them could I find a declaration of financial interests, except for two grants from the Wellcome Trust. In 1998, as part of a settlement of a class action against the tobacco companies in the US, the firms were obliged to place their internal documents in a public archive. Among them is the one I came across last month. It is a memo from an executive in the corporate services department of Philip Morris - the world's largest tobacoo company - to one of her colleagues. The title is "Arise 1994-95 Activities and Funding"(12).
"I had a meeting," she began, "with Charles Hay and Jacqui Smithson (Rothmans) to agree on the 1994-1995 activity plan for Arise and to discuss the funding needed. Enclosed is a copy of our presentation." This showed that in the previous financial year, Arise had received $373,400. Of this, $2000 had come from Coca-cola, $900 from other firms and the remainder from Philip Morris, British American Tobacco, RJ Reynolds and Rothmans(13). Over 99% of its funding, in other words, had been provided by the tobacco companies. For 1994-95, Arise's budget would be $773,750. Rothmans and RJ Reynolds had each committed to provide $200,000 of this, and BAT "has also shown interest". She suggested that Philip Morris put up $300,000. Then the memo becomes even more interesting.
"The previous 'Naughty but Nice' Mori poll proved to be very effective in getting wide media coverage. The exercise will be repeated this year on the theme of 'Stress in the Workplace' ... A draft questionnaire was already submitted to T. Andrade and M. Winokur for comments." (Tony Andrade was Philip Morris's senior lawyer(14), and Matt Winokur its director of regulatory affairs(15)). "We decided to hold," it continued, Arise's next conference in Europe, because of the "positive European media coverage"(16). Philip Morris had appointed a London PR agency to run the media operation, set up Arise's secretariat and help to recruit new members. Arise's "major spending authorisation and approval would be handled by an 'informal' Budget Committee involving PM, Rothmans and possibly RJR and BAT."(17)
The memo suggests, in other words, that Arise was run and managed not by eminent scientists but by eminent tobacco companies. This impression is reinforced by another document in the tobacco archive, which explains how the group began. "In 1988 the US Surgeon General said: "Nicotine was as addictive as heroin or cocaine." The industry responded. A group of academics was identified and called together to: - review the science of substance abuse, - separate nicotine from these substances"(18).
I sent a list of questions to Professor Warburton, but he told me that he did not have time to answer them(19). Reading University replied that it knew Professor Warburton's work had been sponsored by the tobacco companies. Indeed, the university itself had received over £300,000 from Arise, though "from the University's standpoint, the source of funding for Arise has always been vague"(20). It revealed that "Professor Warburton and the University of Reading were in receipt of BAT research funding between 1995 and 2003." But at no time had it questioned this funding or sought to oblige Warburton to declare his interests in academic papers. Astonishingly, it suggested that this would amount to "censorship" and "restricting academic freedom"(21).
The journal Psychopharmacology told me that it was unaware that Professor Warburton had been taking money from the tobacco companies. "It is an author's responsibilty to disclose sources of funding, and widely understood that journals themselves do not expect to police this declaration."(22) After a long career untroubled by questions about his interests or his professional ethics, David Warburton retired in 2003. He still lectures at Reading as Emeritus Professor.
How much more science is being published in academic journals with undeclared interests like these? How many more media campaigns against "over-regulation", the "compensation culture" or "unfounded public fears" have been secretly funded and steered by corporations? How many more undeclared recipients of corporate money have been appearing on the Today programme, providing free public relations for their sponsors? This case suggests to me that both academia and the media have failed dismally to exercise sufficient scepticism. Surely there is one obvious question with which every journal and every journalist should begin. "Who's funding you?"
1. Arise, 28th September 1993. Scientists meet in Brussels to reflect on the quality of life. Press release. Document 2023437459. http://tobaccodocuments.org/pm/2023437459-7460.pdf
3. PR Newswire Europe Ltd, 7th November 1996. '90s Guilt-Trap Could Threaten UK Health, Say Scientists.
4. ABC News, 19th April 2000. Eat, drink and be healthy. http://www.abc.net.au/science/news/stories/s119688.htm
5. Arise, March 1994. Media Coverage. Document 2025500665. http://tobaccodocuments.org/pm/2025500665-0956.pdf
6. Sue Pleming, 24th September 1993. Health puritans accused of ruining quality of life. Reuters.
7. Today programme, 25th September 1993. BBC Radio 4.
8. Sheila Keating, 23rd October 2004. Relax your diet. The Times.
9. Madeleine Bunting, 12th November 1994. Eat, drink,and be very provocative. The Guardian.
10. David M. Warburton, April 1989. Is nicotine use an addiction? The Psychologist.
11. D.M.Warburton, September 1992. Nicotine issues. Editorial. Psychopharmacology Vol 108 number 4; D.M.Warburton, J.M.Rusted, J.Fowler, September 1992. A comparison of the attentional and consolidation hypotheses for the facilitation of memory by nicotine. Psychopharmacology Vol 108 number 4; D.M.Warburton and C.Arnall, August 1994. Improvements in performance without nicotine withdrawal. Psychopharmacology Vol 115 number 4; Jennifer Rusted, Lida Graupner, David Warburton, June 1995. Effects of post-trial administration of nicotine on human memory: evaluating the conditions for improving memory, Psychopharmacology, Vol 119, number 4; Hazel M. Gilbert and David M. Warburton, 2000. Craving: a problematic concept in smoking research. Addiction Research, Vol 8, no 4; David M. Warburton, Abigail Skinner, Christopher D. Martin, 2001. Improved incidental memory with nicotine after semantic processing, but not after phonological processing. Psychopharmacology Vol 153 no 2; David M. Warburton, 2002. Commentary on: "Effects of scopolamine and nicotine on human rapid information processing performance." Psychopharmacology Vol 162 no 4.
12. Helene Lyberopoulos, 13th June 1994. ARISE 1994-95 Activities and Funding. Philip Morris Corporate Services Inc. Document 2024208096. http://tobaccodocuments.org/pm/2024208096-8099.pdf.
14. See http://tobaccodocuments.org/bliley_pm/24415.html
15. See http://tobaccodocuments.org/pm/2028385351.html
16. Helene Lyberopoulos, ibid.
18. Arise, probably September 1993. No title. Document number 2504092465. http://tobaccodocuments.org/landman/2504092465-2482.html
19. Email from David Warburton, 22nd January 2006. firstname.lastname@example.org
20. Email from Sue Rayner, 2nd February 2006. email@example.com
22. Email from Dr. Andrea Pillmann, Editor, Biomedical Sciences, Springer Verlag GmbH, 30th January 2006. Andrea.Pillmann@springer.com