The Controversy Over The Iranian "Gay" Hangings
The Controversy Over The Iranian "Gay" Hangings
The report on the hanging of two Iranian teenagers for being gay, the controversies surrounding the initial reports, and the way in which the story has evolved illustrate a number of problems which should concern sentient gay and lesbian people here in the U.S.
Gay people in American culture are not exempt from the self-centeredness of the society in which they live. As a result, our national gay institutions--like the Human Rights Campaign and the National Gay and Lesbian Task Force--as a general rule pay so little attention to events touching gay people outside our borders that they have little experience or background in evaluating, reporting on, or mobilizing around such issues.
And the commercial gay press, which devotes endless, ad-revenue-generating pages to gay tourism, rarely pauses to examine the political, social, and cultural contexts in which gay people in other countries live out their daily lives.
Nor does our gay press generally have a perspective that situates gay oppression within the broader context of the challenge to human rights, or engage with human rights issues that are not specifically gay.
This lack of sophistication in dealing with the problems of same-sexers in foreign cultures is particularly noticeable when dealing with a closed society like Iran. In the Iranian police state, where the religious authorities and their political police enforce strict controls on freedoms of thought and expression, it is difficult even for national and international news organizations with large budgets and experienced reporters at their disposal to always distinguish what is false from what is true.
Add to this paradigm the institutional and individual homophobia that characterize such news organizations and many of their staffers, and the problems of covering gay news in particular are magnified, as often the will to do so is lacking.
In Iran censorship is an everyday occurrence. The operations of more than 10 newspapers have been suspended and journalists are constantly subject to arbitrary arrest.The international group Reporters Without Borders has named Iranâ€™s senior spiritual leader, Ayatollah AliKhameini -- the "Guide of the Islamic Republic" (right) -- as one of the worldâ€™s foremost "Predators of Press Freedom." All this explains why bloggers have become an important part of the democratic opposition to the clerical-fascist regime of the ayatollahs--and why the Iranian government has been engaged in a massive crackdown on bloggers since last fall. At least a half dozen online journalists and bloggers have been arrested, and both international Web sites in English and local web sites in Farsi have been blocked by a filtering system (ironically with SmartFilter, a system manufactured and marketed by a U.S. company, Secure Computing).
In Iran, blogs are particularly crucial in helping gay and lesbian people to come out and form a specifically gay consciousness which does not generally exist nor dare speak it name in such a traditional, patriarchal culture (that has also succeeded in erasing from collective memory the strong literary and poetic same-sex tradition that flourished in Islamic cultures in the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries.) A large number of those blocked Iranian Web sites related to gay and lesbian and womenâ€™s issues, as well as AIDS, according to a report on Iran released last month by OpenNet Initiative, a project sponsored by Harvard University, the University of Toronto and Cambridge University among others. Yet the U.S. gay press and our national gay institutions let these events pass in nearly total silence.
As I noted on my blog, DIRELAND, when I first transmitted the reports of the hanging of the two Iranian adolescents for criminal homosexuality, consensual gay sex in any form is punishable by death in the Islamic Republic of Iran. According to the Web site Age of Consent, which monitors such laws around the world, in Iran "homosexuality is illegal, those charged with love-makingâ€¦Even kissing â€˜with lustâ€™ (Article 155) is forbidden. This bizarre law works to eliminate ancient Persian male-bonding customs, including common kissing and holding hands in public."
But Iran is a signatory to and has ratified two international conventions--The Convention on the Rights of the Child and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights--both of which prohibit the imposition of the death penalty for crimes committed before the age of 18. Besides the death sentence (confirmed by Iranâ€™s Supreme Court) carried out against the two teens hanged on July 19 in violation of Iranâ€™s treaty commitments, Iran is thought to have executed at least four other juvenile offenders in 2004, and at least 30 juvenile offenders are on death row. Besides Iran, only China, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Pakistan and the United States are known to have put juvenile offenders to death in the past five years.
The U.S. executed nine juvenile offenders during this period; the other countries are each known to have put one juvenile offender to death. Thus, the U.S. has not only been the worldâ€™s leading executioner of minors, but has put to death twice as many as has Iran in this period. Where were the gay communityâ€™s voices raised against these U.S. executions, every bit as outrageous as those of the two Iranian teens?
As protests by bloggers and online journalists within Iran brought the hanging of the two teens to worldwide attention, the Iranian government justified the hangings on the grounds that the two boys had participated in the rape of a 13-year-old boy. Immediately, U.S. gay organizations--mortified at the thought they could be implicated in the defense of a pedophilic incident--backed away from their initial protests of the teensâ€™ hangings. For example, the Human Rights Campaign (HRC) took its letter to Condoleeza Rice demanding the U.S. protest the executions down from its website.
I was initially skeptical about the rape charge, particularly because Iran is currently in delicate negotiations with Western European powers over its developing nuclear capacity -- hardly the moment to be caught in a violation of its international commitments under two treaties (i.e., the ones outlawing the execution of minors). When I asked Hadi Ghaemi, who runs the Iranian desk for Human Rights Watch, on what basis HRW was saying they were "90 percent sure" rape had taken place (as the director of HRWâ€™s gay and lesbian program, Scott Long -- who does first-rate work -- told me) Ghaemi said his sole source was the daily newspaper Quds in the city of Mashad where the two teens were hanged. This newspaper carried statements alleged to be from the father of the 13-year-old who was supposedly raped, and from several of the passers-by who had interrupted the "gang rape" in a vacant lot, upon which, they were quoted as saying, they were threatened at knife point by a group that included the two hanged youths.
When I asked Ghaemi why the July 24 Associated Press dispatch on the hangings cited the executions as being only for "homosexual acts" without mentioning the rape, he said that the original charge against the boys was "sexual assault based on homosexual acts," and that the first part of the charge had been somehow "lost in translation." Ghaemi said he didnâ€™t believe that Quds -- a newspaper controlled by regime supporters --had fabricated the quotes in the article about the rape, which had appeared the morning of the hangings (not after the protests). But he also said he had no independent confirmation from sources in Mashad of the accuracy of the rape charge.
So, did the "rape" occur? Until further independent confirmation is forthcoming, we can only surmise. Did the hanged kids claim "gay" identity? Most probably not--since the concept is virtually unknown among the uneducated classes in Iran. But that doesnâ€™t excuse our national gay organizationsâ€™ cowardice in backing off their demands that the U.S. government specifically protest the hanging of the two youths for crimes committed when at least one, and possibly both of them were underage.
The moral of this story: American gays need to more fully engage themselves with what is happening to our brothers and sisters in other cultures, where oppression-- both cultural and political, is commonplace. And not just when thereâ€™s a crisis.
MUSLIM CLERIC'S "KILL GAYS" DECLARATION CAUSES FIRESTORM IN AUSTRALIA: When US imam Sheik Khalid Yasin (right) said Islamic law prescribed the death penalty for gay sex on Australian TV's Channel Nine program :"60 Minutes,â€œ it cused a firestorm of protest, the Sydney Star-Observer reports July 28. The sharia is very clear about it, the punishment for homosexuality, bestiality or anything like that is death. We donâ€™t make any excuses about that, itâ€™s not our law â€” itâ€™s the Koran,â€ Yasin was quoted as saying.", it caused a firestorm of protests Down Under, reports the July 28 Sydney Star-Observer. "Yasin, who is understood to be visiting Australia at the invitation of a Sydney mosque, also said young Muslims should avoid attending university because it was a 'gateway for deviation'" according to the paper. "The chief executive of the Australian Federation of Islamic Councils, Amjad Mehboob, told Sydney Star Observer Yasinâ€™s comments had brought numerous complaints from the Muslim community....'People have a right to a lifestyle [and] thatâ€™s their choice. Itâ€™s not for us to condemn them or not condemn them.' Outgoing New South Wales premier Bob Carr joined Mehboob in denouncing Yasinâ€™s brand of Islam, telling ABC Radio Muslim fundamentalists should be blocked from visiting Australia. 'If someone has a record of saying everything your country stands for is wrong â€“ women should have no rights, homosexuals should be hunted down and persecuted â€¦ I donâ€™t think they have a role here,' Carr said....." Yasin is apparently a well-known lecturer in the British Commonwealth, judging by a Google search, and is head of the London-based Islamic Information Network, which is trying to set up a "genuine" Islamic satellite TV channel...
AN IRANIAN GAY SPEAKS: The website Gay Russia has an interview with the editor of Maha (logo below left), a tiny Iranian gay e-'zine in Farsi (only 600 subscribers, many of them in exile), who says:
"Life is not easy, it is mixed with fear, uncertainty and self oppression. The biggest problem we are facing is that GLBT do not have info about their sexual desire. They simply can not find explanation to it. Why they feel as they feel (feeling for persons of the same sex), they do not know what it is. What itâ€™s called etc. but when they get the knowledge, then it is becoming much easier. Not all Iranians have access to the Internet, there are no gay bars or clubs, so creating a network of GLBT is very difficult. Bear in mind that after 8 months of publishing MAHA, still a great number of GLBT people have not got the news. Many GLBT people are living with denial of their own sexuality, or they get married in hope to disguise and hide their deep homosexual desire or in hope to be cured of it." (The typos are in the original.)