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The Dark Side of Online Journals
Commercial publishers dominate online scholarly journal production
College & Research Libraries—perhaps the most eminent journal addressing academic library issues in the United States—recently published an article that offers a clear and forceful summary of mainstream opinion about the transition from printed to electronic library materials that is currently underway. The author's first two of five recommendations deal specifically with this transition: "complete the migration from print to electronic collections," he advises, and "retire legacy print collections" (i.e., discard paper copies). I stress that such recommendations are squarely within the mainstream of professional library opinion today; it is not my desire to criticize one librarian or one article. Yet before libraries decide to act further on such recommendations, there is more to understand about the economics of scholarly publishing.
Until about 1960, not-for-profit entities, such as scholarly societies and academic institutions, were the primary publishers of academic work. Theodore Bergstrom, economist at the University of California-Santa Barbara, reveals the changes that have occurred in one field, economics, since that time. According to Bergstrom's research, 30 English-language economics journals existed in 1960, and almost all of them were published by not-for-profit entities. By 1980, the number of journals had risen to 120, with about half of these published by commercial entities. By the year 2000, there were 300 journals, and two-thirds were published by commercial entities (Theodore C. Bergstrom, "Free Labor for Costly Journals?" Journal of Economic Perspectives 15.3, 2001).
These two developments—an increase in the number of journals and an increase in the commercial publishers' share of the market—can be traced across many academic disciplines. The increase in the number of journals is a result of the expansion of higher education since the 1960s, the increase in research funding, particularly in the sciences, and the increased emphasis on research and publication in all areas of higher education.
But what accounts for the increase in the proportion of scholarly journals now in the hands of the commercial publishers? One reason widely acknowledged is that commercial publishers have been better at innovation, identifying (and perhaps creating) new markets, and launching new titles. When higher education expanded quickly in the 1960s and 1970s and more money became available for research, it was mostly the commercial publishers, not the scholarly societies, that moved quickly to meet the new demand for publishing outlets. A second reason is that commercial publishers have actively encouraged the scholarly societies and other not-for-profit entities to relinquish their journals or at least enter into publishing contracts with them. Lacking the technical expertise, the capital, and the economies-of-scale of the commercial publishers, many scholarly societies and others have found such offers congenial, particularly as journal delivery began to move online.
Thus, the educational and research sectors have benefited in some ways from this transition to commercial publishers. But for some time now, economists and others who have studied the scholarly journal market have noted some disturbing facts. A study in 2001 found that the price of a given scholarly journal published by not-for-profit publishers was on average 50-75 percent lower than the price of a journal of comparable quality published by commercial publishers (Mark J. McCabe, "The Impact of Publisher Mergers on Journal Prices: Theory and Evidence" Serials Librarian 40.1/2, 2001). Another study conducted in 2001, of economics journals only, revealed that "cost per page" of commercially published titles was 6 times higher and "cost per citation" was 16 times higher than not-for-profit titles of similar quality. This researcher noted that while just 5 of the 20 most-cited economics journals were published by commercial publishers, these publishers "are absorbing the lion's share of library budgets" (Bergstrom).
Case, 2001; from www.library.uu.nl/staff/ savenije/publicaties/ticer2004.htm
Prices also tend to increase after mergers and acquisitions. Industry consolidation is most notable in the scientific, medical, and technical fields, which also have the highest journal prices. Mark McCabe, an economist at Georgia Tech, has established that "a firm's portfolio size [i.e., number of journals published] was positively related to journal prices, and that past mergers were associated with higher prices." When Reed Elsevier, one of the very largest scientific publishers, bought Pergamon, a smaller publisher, the average price of the former Pergamon journals rose 27 percent and the Reed Elsevier journals rose 5 percent. The merger of West and Thomson, two publishers of legal material, resulted in a 30 percent increase in the company's post-merger prices. This occurred despite a review by the U.S. Department of Justice, which mandated the company to divest itself of certain "content overlap" in order to avoid anti-competitive practice.
One might argue that although prices have risen sharply, they fairly represent the cost of doing business. But the evidence does not lie along these lines. First, the profits of these publishers over the past many years have been in the 15-40 percent range, indicating that revenues greatly outstrip costs. Second, the publishers of other scholarly journals have not raised their prices as rapidly, yet presumably have similar costs. And third, the price of scholarly books, as opposed to journals, has not risen as rapidly, but again we presume that book publishing has similar costs.
Why is it that in a market economy, such outsized prices, and therefore outsized profits, have been occurring? One reason is that the actual consumers of these scholarly journals usually are not the ones who pay for them, and are thus not price-aware, much less price-sensitive. The primary consumers of a scholarly journal are its editors, referees, authors, and readers. While each scholar, by choosing to participate in a given journal, is implicitly choosing to support that journal's business model as well, librarians have generally been ineffective at bringing this fact to scholars' attention and helping them see how it directly affects their own self-interest and the well-being of scholarship as a whole.
Second, we can note that the market for a scholarly journal is quite different from the market for a cell phone or a car or any other usual consumer item. A given journal has a given level of prestige, usually developed over decades, built upon the reputation of its editors, referees, and authors, and upon the quality and impact of its articles. It is extremely difficult for one journal to usurp another journal's status. Bergstrom has pointed out that authors, editors, promotion and tenure committees, and librarians are playing a coordination game: "In a coordination game, each player chooses an action from among several alternatives and each player's payoff increases with the number of other players whose choice is the same as her own. An equilibrium is an outcome such that given the actions of others, no player could individually benefit by switching to another action. Coordination games commonly have many different equilibria, in each of which all players choose the same action. An outcome can be an equilibrium even though there is another equilibrium that would be better for everyone and which could be reached if all players were to change simultaneously to the same new action."
In other words, talented authors and editors "coordinate" at prestigious journals, prompting more authors to seek to be published therein, in turn prompting libraries to subscribe and make these journals available, in turn making these journals likely to be read and cited more, in turn reinforcing these journals' prestige and impact. A status quo is entrenched, and, absent a sudden re-coordination at another journal, this state of affairs may persist even when "another equilibrium...would be better for everyone."
House of Commons, Science & Technology - Tenth Report, 2004 -- www.parliament.the-stationery-office.com/ pa/cm200304/cmselect/cmsctech/399/39907.htm
Third, the journal market differs from the market for other consumer items in that it lacks a substitution mechanism, one of the features of most markets that help to keep prices competitive. Access to one journal is not equivalent to access to another, even when they have equal prestige and are devoted to the same topics. If important work is being published in Journal A, to which a university's faculty members want to have access, it will not do for the university library to offer instead the important work being published in Journal B. The professors may indeed appreciate having access to Journal B as well—they want to have access to as much as possible—but one journal cannot serve as a substitute for another in the way that a cell phone available from one company can plausibly substitute for a cell phone available from another. Economists refer to such conditions, in which demand for a particular product is only weakly affected by price increases, as an "inelastic market."
Faculty members, as a whole, wish to have access to as many scholarly journals as possible. Academic libraries therefore attempt to subscribe to as many journals as their budgets permit. This, coupled with the fact that journals, unlike books, exist as publications that extend through time (as a series of issues published consecutively and without anticipated completion), has prompted a rational and highly effective strategy on the part of the large commercial publishers. Mergers and acquisitions have been one part of the strategy, since they increase the size of a given publisher's portfolio of journals. Another part of the strategy has been to exert pressure on libraries to transition from printed to online journal format. As journals have moved online, the large publishers have created databases that can be marketed as products in their own right, quite apart from each journal title that these databases may include. For the time being at least, libraries are still permitted to subscribe to individual titles, but publishers are now pricing their products in such a way that it is to the library's advantage, on a price-per-title basis, to subscribe to databases composed of particular sets of journals, or to all of the publisher's journals, rather than to select title by title. Because libraries desire to subscribe to the greatest number of journals possible within the constraints of their budgets, and pricing is arranged so that very little savings are gained through selective cancellation, we can see why most libraries have accepted these deals, which are known as bundles.
What does journal bundling do for the publishers? First, it replaces old-fashioned subscriptions with contracts. In most cases, bundling deals are offered to libraries as multi-year contracts. As a condition of making the deal, the library is usually locked into a series of annual price increases, laid out in the contract, and prohibited from cancelling any of the publisher's titles during that period. Contract law supersedes Fair Use and other provisions of copyright law, enabling the publisher to define how the content can be used. (And with any electronically delivered content, it is important to remember that libraries usually pay only for access, not for ownership. Archiving and other long-term rights to the content vary by contract.)
In addition, the price of the journal bundles is not the same for all customers, but is negotiated according to a given library's apparent ability to pay as revealed by that library's subscription history and other factors. One library pays one price to gain access to a given bundle of journals, while another library may pay a higher or lower price for identical access. For this reason, bundling contracts may include a nondisclosure clause, prohibiting libraries from discussing with one another the details of the contracts they have signed. Libraries' negotiation powers are weakened by their inability to assess the market value of the journals they are purchasing.
And finally, bundling gives the publisher a larger share of the library's overall budget than it may have held in the past, and, as mentioned earlier, it locks in that share for the entire multi-year contract. This necessarily reduces the funds the library has available for buying desirable content from other publishers. Limiting competitors' market share is one way that a company may prosper. Another way is to increases profits. McCabe has argued that bundling enables publishers to increase profits by exploiting the market inelasticity mentioned above, since the publisher's more-desirable titles can be bundled with the less-desirable ones. This increases the subscription rate of the less-desirable titles, which often carry higher profit margins.
Some of the smaller publishers, including some society publishers, have seen the advantages of the bundling model and are beginning to use it also, but the smaller size of their portfolios make their bundles less attractive to libraries. A Morgan Stanley report in 2002 noted that "Market leader Reed should outperform the market...as libraries trim peripheral suppliers who can't bundle journals as effectively." To "trim peripheral suppliers" is to cancel subscriptions to the journals published by the smaller publishers. In the words of one commentator: "The journals produced by small publishers may enter a vicious cycle whereby as they lose subscriptions more quickly, the dissemination and circulation of the work published in them is reduced, resulting in a fall in impact factor. As the impact factor drops, their position on librarians' 'must have' lists falls, leading to even greater cancellations, reduced dissemination, lower visibility and exposure, falling usage, further decreased impact, etc., etc. Conversely the inessential, low-impact journals from large commercial publishers will have expanded dissemination through [bundling], leading to greater impact and a strengthened position" (David Prosser, "Between a Rock and a Hard Place: The Big Squeeze for Small Publishers" Learned Publishing 17.1, 2004). Under such conditions, scholarly societies must feel great pressure to transfer their titles to the large publishers.
McCabe points out that if the very large publishers continue their mergers and acquisitions, with one STM (scientific, technical, and medical) publisher gaining access to 50 percent or more of the journals, "effectively the publisher could say, 'Either spend all of the [library] budget on my 60 percent of the STM content, or you can go and spend your entire STM budget on the 40 percent of stuff out there that is not in my bundle.'... This would be an offer [libraries] couldn't refuse." When we consider that the actual cost of producing the research is borne by the public, through tax-funded government agencies, or by the very institutions whose libraries are now buying back the results, McCabe concludes: "Let's be clear: We are talking about a true market failure" (qtd. in Richard Poynder, "A True Market Failure" Information Today, Dec. 2002). McCabe notes that such asituation can occur only because of the transition to online journals, which has made bundling possible. In a print-based market, a library could always select journals to subscribe to on a title-by-title basis, even if the majority of these were held by one publisher. "Once publishers eliminate the print option," he notes, "the temptation to pursue a super merger strategy may be hard to resist."
In sum, "the market for scholarly journals as currently constituted appears to be one in which, because of its distinctive features, price competition is weak or nearly absent; a few dominant suppliers extract huge profits, and few of the 'self correction' mechanisms are present if markets are to serve the public interest" (Richard Edwards and David Shulenburger, "The High Cost of Scholarly Journals" Change, Nov.-Dec. 2003). In fact, colleges and universities are caught truly in a no-win situation by the current arrangement of the market. Even if they are able to increase their libraries' acquisitions budgets faster than the general academic inflation rate, the commercial publishers only raise prices further. This is a logical outcome. As Edwards and Shulenburger observe, "In a market in which demand is inelastic, the reaction to more purchasing power...is simply higher prices." While it is possible for libraries to cancel subscriptions, publishers have calibrated their pricing in such a way that a 1 percent increase in price results in a subscription decline of only 0.3 percent, thus enabling them still to come out ahead. And as shown earlier, bundling contracts make it harder for libraries to cut subscriptions.
What is good for the large commercial publishers is fundamentally at variance with what is good for scholarship. What is good for scholarship is a wide variety of journals from a wide variety of publishers, each one offering valuable work to as wide an audience as possible. Helena Norberg-Hodge, speaking of changes occurring within indigenous communities, remarks that "increasingly, people are locked into an economic system that pumps resources out of the periphery [that is, out of the local community] into the center [the industrial center].... Often, these resources end up back where they came from as commercial products...at prices [that the original community] can no longer afford" (Helena Norberg-Hodge quoted in Wendell Berry, Sex, Economy, Freedom & Community, Pantheon, 1992). Is this not an apt description of the changes occurring in academic communities also?
Those in academe who find this trend disturbing offer various possible solutions: open-access publishing, renewed support for university presses and scholarly societies, improved understanding and management of authors' copyrights, and so forth. My own view is that the success of these efforts will be partial at best. The transition from printed to electronic journal delivery, currently underway in our academic libraries and urged upon us by almost all of what we read and hear, has been an essential step toward the increased market dominance and profits of the large commercial publishers. Electronic delivery, making use of certain inherent features in the nature of academic journals, has enabled the creation of new products (bundles and databases) and sales of them through contract, which have in turn weakened the smaller publishers and the libraries that buy the products. This is true regardless of the merits of electronic delivery as measured by other criteria (shelf-space savings, ease of use, and so forth). If this argument is correct, then our acquiescence in a complete transition to electronic journal delivery without probing these economic realities is an inadequate response to the conditions we face.
Z Magazine Archive
AnnouncementsLABOR - May 1 is May Day. Workers of the world will celebrate the 124th anniversary of International Worker’s Day. Born out of a call for an 8-hour workday in the United States, this day is an opportunity for all workers to show their solidarity with one another, as well as to renew the call for labor rights.
FARM CONFERENCE - The Farm Conference on Community and Sustainability will be held May 24-26 in Summertown, TN, in partnership with the Fellowship of Intentional Communities. Tour green homes, see sustainable food production, learn about solar installations, alternative education, midwifery, and more.
Contact: Douglas@thefarmcommunity.com; http://www.thefarmcommunity.com/.
PALESTINE - The Conference of the Palestinian Shatat in North American will be held June 3-5 in Vancouver. The conference will examine the future of the Palestinian liberation movement.
Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org; http://www.palestinianconference.org/.
LABOR - The Pacific Northwest Labor History Association’s 45th annual conference will be held May 3-5, in Portland, OR. This year’s theme is Labor Under Attack: Learning from the Past and Preparing for the Future. A call for presentations, workshops and papers is currently underway.
Contact: PNLHA, 27920 68th Ave. East, Graham, WA 98338; 206-406-2604; PNLHA1@aol.com; http://www3.telus.net.
MARIJUANA - On the first Saturday of May marijuana legalization activists will hold informational and educational events, rallies and marches in over 300 cities around the world.
ECONOMICS - The Union For Radical Political Economics will hold its 39th annual conference May 9-11 in New York City.
RECLAIM THE DREAM - The 2013 Poor People’s Campaign & March from Baltimore to Washington D.C. will be May 11. Communities, schools and unions interested in participating are encouraged to contact the Baltimore People’s Assembly.
Contact: 410-500-2168; 410-218-4835; BaltimorePeoplesAssembly@gmail.com; Southern Christian Leadership Conference of Baltimore and the Baltimore Peoples Power Assembly, 2011 N. Charles St., Baltimore, MD 21218.
MOTHER’S DAY - The 17th Annual Mother’s Day Walk For Peace will be May 12th, in Dorchester, MA. The walk began in 1996 for families who had lost children to violence. The day has become a way for thousands of people to financially support the work of the Louis Brown Peace Institute.
Contact: http://www.ldbpeaceinstitute.org/; http://mothersdaywalk4peace.org/.
NATO 5 - An International Week of Solidarity with the NATO 5 has been called for May 16-21. Supports call on supporters to raise awareness of the NATO 5 and support funds for the defendants on the one-year anniversary of their preemptive arrests.
Contact: email@example.com; https://nato5support.wordpress.com.
MOUNTAINTOP - The 2013 Mountain Justice Summer Activist Training Camp will be held May 19-27 in Damascus, VA. It will be a week of workshops, field trips to view Mountain Top Removal coal mines, direct actions, and service project.
FEMINIST SCI-FI - The feminist science fiction convention WisCon 37 is scheduled for May 24-27 in Madison, WI.
Contact: WisCon, ? SF3, PO Box 1624, Madison, WI 53701; firstname.lastname@example.org; http://www.wiscon.info/.
ANARCHY FEST - A month-long Festival of Anarchy is scheduled for May in Montreal. The festival includes The Montreal Anarchist Bookfair (May 19-20).
Contact: http://www.anarchistbookfair.ca/; http://www.radicalmontreal.com/.
LABOR - The International Labor Rights Forum will present: Down the Supply Chain, Driving Corporate Accountability, on May 22 in Washington, DC. The Labor Rights Awards Ceremony and Reception will honor pioneers in supply chain worker organizing, working solidarity and international labor rights policy.
MULTICULTURE - The 26th annual National Conference on Race & Ethnicity in American Higher Education (NCORE) will take place May 28-June 1, in New Orleans.
Contact: SWCHRS, 3200 Marshall Avenue, Suite 290, Norman, OK 73072; 405-325-3694; email@example.com; www.ncore.ou.edu.
MEDIA - The 2013 Alliance for Community Media Annual Conference will be held May 29-31, in San Francisco, CA. Participants will include educators, community leaders, media professionals, journalists, nonprofit leaders, policymakers and students.
RADIO - The 38th Annual Community Radio Conference is schedule for May 29-June 1, in San Francisco, CA, with discussions and workshops.
Contact: 1101 Pennsylvania Ave. NW, Suite 600, Washington, DC 20004; 202-756-2268; firstname.lastname@example.org; http://www.nfcb.org/.
BRADLEY MANNING - On June 1, a rally will be held at Fort Meade in support of Bradley Manning.
BIKES - Bikes Not Bombs is holding its 24th annual Bike-A-Thon and Green Roots Festival in Boston, MA on June 3, with several bike rides scheduled, music, exhibitors and more.
Contact: Bikes Not Bombs, 284 Amory St., Jamaica Plain, MA 02130; 617-522-0222; email@example.com; www.bikesnotbombs.org.
LEFT FORUM - The 2013 Left Forum will be held June 7-9, at Pace University in New York City.
Contact: 365 Fifth Avenue, CUNY Graduated Center, ? Sociology Dept., New York, NY 10016; http://www.leftforum.org/.
VEGAN FEST - Mad City Vegan Fest will be held in Madison, WI, June 8. The annual event features food, speakers, and exhibitors.
Contact: 122 State Street, Suite 405 B, Madison, WI 53701; firstname.lastname@example.org; http://veganfest.org/.
ADC CONFERENCE - The American-Arab Anti-Discrimination Committee (ADC) holds its annual conference June 13-16, in Washington, DC, with panel discussions and workshops on civil rights, media and other topics.
Contact: 1990 M Street, Suite 610, Washington, DC, 20036; 202-244-2990; email@example.com http://convention.adc.org/.
CUBA/SOCIALISM - A Cuban-North American Dialog on Socialist Renewal and Global Capitalist Crisis will be held in Havana, Cuba, June 16-30. There will be a 5 day Seminar at University of Havana, plus visits to a cooperative, urban garden, community development project, social research centers, and educational & medical institutions.
Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org; http://www.globaljusticecenter.org/.
NETROOTS - The 8th Annual Netroots Nation conference will take place June 20-23 in San Jose, CA. The event features panels, trainings, networking, screenings, and keynotes.
Contact: 164 Robles Way, #276, Vallejo, CA 94591; email@example.com; http://www.netrootsnation.org/.
MEDIA - The 15th annual Allied Media Conference will be held June 20-23, in Detroit.
Contact: 4126 Third Street, Detroit, MI 48201; http://alliedmedia.org/.
GRASSROOTS - The United We Stand Festival will be hosted by Free & Equal, June 22 in Little Rock, Arkansas. The festival aims to reform the electoral process throughout the U.S.
SOCIALISM - The Socialism 2013 Conference is scheduled for June 27-30 in Chicago, featuring talks and panel discussions.
Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org; http://www.socialismconference.org.
LITERACY - The National Association for Media Literacy Education (NAMLE) will hold its conference July 12-13 in Los Angeles under the heading, Intersections: Teaching and Learning Across Media.
Contact: 10 Laurel Hill Drive, Cherry Hill, NJ 08003; http://namle.net/conference/.
IWW - The North American Work People’s College will take place July 12-16 at Mesaba Co-op Park in northern Minnesota. The event will bring together Wobblies from branches across the continent to learn new skills and build One Big Union.
PEACESTOCK - On July 13th, the 11th Annual Peacestock: A Gathering for Peace, will take place at Windbeam Farm in Hager City, WI. The event is a mixture of music, speakers and community for peace. Sponsored by Veterans for Peace.
Contact: Bill Habedank, 1913 Grandview Ave., Red Wing, MN 55066; 651-388-7733; email@example.com; http://www.peacestockvfp.org.
CHILDREN’S DEFENSE - July 15-19, join clergy, seminarians, Christian educators, young adult leaders and other faith-based advocates for children at CDF Haley Farm in Clinton, Tennessee, for five days of spiritual renewal, networking, movement building workshops, and continuing education about the urgent needs of children at the 19th annual Proctor Institute for Child Advocacy Ministry.
Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org; http://www.childrensdefense.org.
ACTIVIST CAMP - Youth Empowered Action (YEA) Camp will have sessions in July and August in Ben Lomond, CA; Portland, OR; Charlton, MA. YEA Camp is designed for activists 12-17 years old who want to make a difference in the world.
Contact: email@example.com; http://yeacamp.org/.
LA RAZA - The annual National Council of La Raza (NCLR) Conference is scheduled for July 18-19 in New Orleans, with workshops, presentations and panel discussions.
Contact: NCLR Headquarters Office, Raul Yzaguirre Building, 1126 16th Street, NW, Washington, DC 20036; 202-785-1670; www.nclr.org.
LABOR - The Eastern Conference For Workplace Democracy: Growing Our Cooperatives, Growing Our Communities, will be held at Drexel University in Philadelphia, PA, July 26-28.
Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org; http://east.usworker.coop/.
WOMEN/LYNNE STEWART- Radical Women is asking for support letters and cards to be sent to Lynne Stewart. Stewart is a civil rights attorney and political prisoner who is currently in jail. She has breast cancer and authorities have denied her request for transfer from her Texas prison to the New York City hospital where she received medical attention during a prior bout of breast cancer. Send messages and cards to: Lynne Stewart 53504-054, Federal Medical Center Carswell, P.O. Box 27137, Fort Worth, TX 76127.
Contact: 747 Polk Street, San Francisco, CA 94109; 415-864-1278; RadicalWomenUS@gmail.com; http://lynnestewart.org/; http://www.radicalwomen.org/.
HAITI/WOMEN - Haiti’s government is considering a legal reform measure that would prohibit and punish all sexual assault, including marital rape. MADRE and the International Campaign to Stop Rape & Gender Violence in Conflict are launching a petition to raise international support for this push to address violence against women in Haiti.
Contact: 121 West 27th Street, #301, New York, NY 10001; 212-627-0444; email@example.com; http://www.madre.org.
SYRIA/MIDDLE EAST - The Middle East Children’s Alliance (MECA) is currently seeking funds to assist more than 200,000 refugees fleeing violence in Syria.
FOLK FESTIVAL - The Falcon Ridge Folk Festival will be held August 2-4, in the Berkshires, NY.
Contact: http://www.falconridgefolk.com/; firstname.lastname@example.org.
WAR RESISTERS - The War Resisters League will hold its 90th anniversary conference, Revolutionary Nonviolence: Building Bridges Across Generations and Communities, August 1-4, at Georgetown University. The event will focus on the U.S.’ long history of antimilitarism.
Contact: 339 Lafayette Street, New York, NY 10012; 212-228-0450; email@example.com; http://www.warresisters.org.
POPULAR ECONOMICS - The Center for Popular Economics is holding its 2013 Summer Institute August 4-9 at Hampshire College in Amherst, MA. No background in economics is needed for this intensive training. This year’s theme is, The Care Economy: Building a Just Economy with a Heart.
Contact: Center for Popular Economics, PO Box 785 Amherst, MA 01004; 413-545-0743; firstname.lastname@example.org; www.populareconomics.org.
VETERANS - Veterans for Peace is holding the 28th annual convention August 6-11 in Madison, WI. This year’s theme is, Power To The Peaceful.
DEMOCRACY - The Democracy Convention will take place August 7-11 in Madison, WI. The convention brings together nine conferences including topics such as media, education, defense, race, environment and others.
MEN - The 38th National Conference on Men & Masculinity: Forging Justice: Creating Safe, Equal and Accountable Communities, presented in partnership with HAVEN, will be held in Detroit, MI, August 8-10.
Contact: email@example.com; http://www.nomas.org/.
OCCUPY - An Occupy National Gathering will be held in Kalamazoo, MI, August 21-25.
Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org; http://occupynationalgathering.net/.
COMMUNITIES - The Communities Conference is a networking and learning opportunity for co-operative or communal lifestyles, with workshops, events and entertainment; scheduled for August 30-September 2 at the Twin Oaks Community in Louisa, Virginia.
LABOR DAY - The 29th annual Bread and Roses Festival, a celebration of the ethnic diversity and labor history of Lawrence, MA, will be held September 2, in honor of the 1912 Bread and Roses Strike. There will be music, dance, poetry, drama, ethnic food, historical demonstrations, walking & trolley tours.
Contact: PO Box 1137, Lawrence, MA 01842; 978-794-1655; http://www.breadandrosesheritage.org/.
OCCUPY WALL STREET - September 17 is the two-year anniversary of the Occupy Wall Street movement. Events are planned in New York City and worldwide.
TEACHERS - The 13th Annual Conference, “Teaching for Social Justice: The Politics of Pedagogy,” will be held October 12 in San Francisco, CA. The free event features workshops, resources, and free childcare.
Contact: 415-676-7844; email@example.com; http://www.t4sj.org/.
HAITI - International Action, which brings clean water and chlorinators to Haiti, seeks office space capable of housing up to six people and their office equipment.
Contact: Zach Bremer, Zbrehmer@haitiwater.org; 202-488-0735; http://www.haitiwater.org/.
MEDIA - The Union for Democratic Communications and Project Censored are sponsoring a joint conference on media democracy, media activism and social justice to be held November 1-3 at the University of San Francisco. Proposals for presentations, workshops and panels from activists and critical scholars are invited.