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The Manufactured Threat
The Bush administration has floated several reasons for going to war with Saddam Hussein. The one that seems to have the most currency is that we need to stop Saddam before he strikes us or someone else.
Saddam has been so thoroughly demonized by American politicians, the media, and your local coffee vendor that nearly any claim about him is accepted by a large number of people without burdening themselves with issues of proof. Is there evidence that Saddam Hussein has and will use weapons of mass destruction (WMDs) against others anytime in the near future?
The CIAs most recent assessment of Iraq, parts of which were declassified in October, is striking for its puny, yet highly indignant account of a slender arsenal (Iraqs Weapons of Mass Destruction Programs, CIA: October 2002). But it does tell us two vitally important things. First, Iraq does not have a nuclear weapon and, unless it gets whopping big help from someone, wont have one for years. Second, although we have no idea what chemical and biological stockpiles exist in Iraq, the CIA tells us there are no missiles that come even close to being able to deliver such weapons to the U.S. There is no imminent danger or grave risk to any American apartment or farmhouse, grocery store or baseball diamond from putative Iraqi weapons, and this according to the Administrations main source of information about Iraq.
The Blair Dossier, issued to rally the world behind an immediate attack on Iraq, is interesting for its recounting of Iraqs repeated failure to make significant progress in producing nuclear weapons. Iraq has been pursuing nuclear weapons since the 1950s, receiving considerable assistance from the Soviet Union beginning in 1959. In the 1980s Iraq commenced an electromagnetic isotope separation (EMIS) program, but could never get the technology to work and abandoned it by 1991. In August 1990, Iraq initiated a crash program to build a single nuclear weapon within a year, contemplating rapid development of a small 50 machine gas centrifuge cascade to produce weapons-grade highly enriched uranium using fuel from their Soviet research reactor, but the program had evinced little success by the time of the Gulf War (Iraqs Weapons of Mass Destruction: The Assessment of the British Government).
So we know that Iraq has repeatedly tried and failed to produce a nuclear weapon. We know that it had been at it for nearly four decades at the time the UN weapons inspectors went and dismantled it all. Its true that a soufflé requires know-how as much as eggs and a hot oven. And the one thing the U.N. inspectors could not destroy was the human capital invested in Iraqs nuclear program. But is that enough to make the nuclear threat credible? We are asked to believe that unsuccessful work conducted over 40 years and with help from the Soviet Union and others might now be successfully conducted in some 46 months when Iraqs resources are monumentally constrained and every possible weapon component or toolfrom test tube to centrifuge rotormust be procured covertly with most developed nations refusing to offer the least assistance. What about chemical and biological weapons? What both the CIA Assessment and the Blair Dossier make clear is that no one knows what Iraq has. (What they dont make clear is just how much of it, in the 1970s and 1980s, came from Anglo-American sources. This would be useful, as we could gauge a lot from it.)
These government briefs go to great lengths to list chemical and biological stocks that could possibly have remained after the UN inspections ended in 1998, yet remarkably the Blair Dossier, an unabashed manifesto for war, doesnt hide how speculative a proposition this is. It quotes a report prepared by Richard Butler, the last head of the UN weapons inspectors and a man incapable of hiding his rabid anti-Iraq sentiments. Butlers UN Security Council brief importantly, even surprisingly, acknowledges, Iraq undertook extensive, unilateral and secret destruction of large quantities of proscribed weapons and items. Then, the British government concluded, Without U.N. weapons inspectors, it is very difficult therefore to be sure about the true nature of many of Iraqs facilities.
The problem when the UN inspectors were there, and the problem now, is that some people will forego any rules of honest proof: if we find the weapons, then they exist; and if we dont find the weapons, they exist, too, but are hidden.
Sure, Iraq has some (and perhaps very few) chemical and biological weapons. But what Iraq lacks, and both the CIA Assessment and the Blair Dossier go into this in great detail, is the means of propelling these poisons any great distance outside of Iraq. The British government maintains that Saddam has the delivery mechanisms to threaten only Cyprus, Eastern Turkey, Tehran, and Israel and that this is not bound to change anytime soon as the development of new longer-range missiles is likely to be a slow process because various restrictions on Iraq have been very successful, including those on the use of foreign experts, the conduct of test flights in ranges greater than 150 km, and the acquisition of guidance and control technology.
Some people fear an attack not on the U.S., but on Israel. But whatever actual weapons Saddam has, if he cant deliver them, they mean little. According to the Blair Dossier, he has no more than 20 al-Hussein (SCUD) missiles (probably far fewer), that are limited in range to 650 km. UN agreements limit Iraq to missiles that cannot reach beyond 150 km. Notably, there is no evidence in the Blair Dossier or the CIA assessment of any activity since 1998 on the part of the Iraqi government to test a missile that can travel farther than 150 km. This is hardly surprising. Such activity is easily monitored by American, British, and Israeli intelligence. This means that whatever chemical or biological weapons we may guess or insist he possesses cant effectively be delivered very far. This also limits the cursedness of the mobile units purported to contain biological weapons, so often invoked as uninspectable. If Saddam cant deliver his weapons, they are not much threat outside his own country or those contiguous to Iraq.
The idea that chemical or biological weapons might be indiscriminately scattered well outside of Iraq after having been transported in a suitcase or some other innocuous device by a terrorist verges on the preposterous. Iraqi borders are elaborately policed, as anyone who tries to bring shoes or foodstuffs into the country can attest. Even if the substances should find their way across the border, the technological difficulties of dispersing the agent effectively are immense. U.S. experimenters, who have far more weapons of mass destruction at their fingertips, as well as the resources to hone their lethal delivery and effects, have worked for decades to create a truly effective dispersal mechanism and failed.
Although the two governments most raucously calling for war have provided nothing in the way of proof of a grave and imminent threat from Saddam Hussein, lets assume that things are worse than the U.S. and UK have outlined. Assume numerous nasty weapons poised for an attack. Is this a valid justification for going to war with Iraq? Bush maintains that a regime change in Iraq is necessary because Saddam might unleash his weapons. In a speech in Cincinnati, the president invoked the specter of an Iraqi-generated mushroom cloud and, demonstrating that he doesnt understand the effective use of metaphor, described this as a smoking gun.
The CIAs assessment is quite different. Recently, George Tenet declassified some material concerning Iraq after pressure from the Senate Intelligence Committee. In his letter of October 7, 2002 to Senator Bob Graham, Tenet wrote: Baghdad for now appears to be drawing a line short of conducting terrorist attacks with conventional or C.B.W. (chemical and biological weapons) against the United States.
Should Saddam conclude that a U.S.-led attack could no longer be deterred, he probably would become much less constrained in adopting terrorist actions. Such terrorism might involve conventional means, as with Iraqs unsuccessful attempt at a terrorist offensive in 1991, or C.B.W.
Saddam might decide that the extreme step of assisting Islamist terrorists in conducting a W.M.D. attack against the United States would be his last chance to exact vengeance by taking a large number of victims with him (Letter dated October 7, 2002 to Senator Bob Graham, Democrat of Florida and Chairman of the Intelligence Committee, by George J. Tenet, Director of Central Intelligence, about decisions to declassify material related to the debate about Iraq).
There was also a closed hearing and Tenet declassified a portion of testimony offered: Senator Carl Levin, Democrat of Michigan: ...[If Saddam] did not feel threatened, is it likely that he would initiate an attack using a weapon of mass destruction?
Senior Intelligence Witness: ...My judgment would be that the probability of him initiating an attacklet me put a time frame on itin the foreseeable future, given the conditions we understand now, the likelihood I think would be low.
Senator Levin: ...But what about his use of weapons of mass destruction? If we initiate an attack and he thought he was in extremis or otherwise, whats the likelihood in response to our attack that he would use chemical or biological weapons?
Senior Intelligence Witness: Pretty high, in my view (Tenet letter, October 7, 2002).
The Blair Dossier doesnt offer the discordance with government policy displayed in the differences between Bush and Tenet. But it also does not make a case that Saddam is itching to use his weapons. Nor does the Blair government so grandiosely assume that it might be in Saddams sights when the weapons are prepped for use (although there is one patriotic reference to UK Sovereign Base Areas in Cyprus that are within Iraqi range). The British governments psychologizing over Saddam maintains that he has a fetish for toxic weapons in order to strike fear in his neighbors: ... chemical and biological weapons play an important role in Iraqi military thinking: intelligence shows that Saddam attaches great importance to the possession of chemical and biological weapons which he regards as being the basis for Iraqi regional power. He believes that respect for Iraq rests on its possession of these weapons and the missiles capable of delivering them.
Theres a lot thats interesting in this assessment, including the fact that the British maintain that chemical and biological weapons are only in his quiver to make others in the region shiver. But even more interestingly, the British never show that hes likely to use them. Their tacit conclusion is that Saddam sees the threat as more powerful than the execution. Its a reasonable assessment, since Saddam hasnt used any weapon outside of Iraq in over a decade, yet has managed to remain a source of concern and tension in the region.
Why hasnt Saddam used his weapons? Why is he unlikely to? The same reason he didnt use chemical or biological weapons against Americans in the Gulf War: he wants to stay in power. He may be a bully and a murderous tyrant, but he knows that America can crush him should it decide to. The frightening irony of the War to Stop Weapons of Mass Destruction is that if Bush prosecutes this war, then and only then do we put Saddam in a position where there is absolutely no reason for reason for him not to use everything hes got. Regime change is a euphemism for a military campaign that doesnt cease until Saddam is dead. He might decide that his place in history will be assured by hurling every last gram from the Iraqi weapons apothecary at the enemy. Ironically, Saddam cant deploy these weapons (if they exist) to the U.S., but Bushs proposed war would put Americans conveniently within his grasp. American ground troops seem more likely at risk than Israeloften cited as in danger from Saddamsince what missiles Iraqs got are neither modern nor stealthy and Israel must surely be aware of the risks attendant on Bushs proposed war and be planning appropriate, very likely disproportionate, measures. Saddams got nothing to lose in deploying his weapons if the United States wages an all-out attack against Iraq aimed at his destruction. Hes a dead man bombing.
The obvious policy worth pursuing with more vigor and honesty than either the U.S. or UK governments have attempted is to get the weapons inspectors back into Iraq. In a summary report to the Security Council, the Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency (who conducted the nuclear weapons aspect of the UN inspections) wrote: Document GOV/INF/827 reported that there were no indications that Iraq had achieved its programme objective of producing nuclear weapons nor were there indications that Iraq had produced more than a few grams of weapon-usable nuclear material or had otherwise acquired such material. It also reported that there were no indications that there remains in Iraq any physical capability for the production of weapon-usable nuclear material of any practical significance and that all weapon-usable nuclear material (research reactor fuel) has been removed from Iraq. Several other reports were similarly summarized, indicating how thoroughly the nuclear weapons program of Iraq was dismantled.
Why did the inspectors leave? Richard Butler, head of the UN inspectors in 1998, explained to the Security Council why he decided to remove all inspectors from Iraq: On 16 December 1998, the Executive Chairman [sic] wrote to the President of the Council, confirming his previous evenings conversation with the President, during which he told the President that he had decided to remove all the Commissions personnel from Iraq. IAEA personnel also departed. This decision was taken in consultation with IAEA. The executive chairs letter noted that the prime considerations in his decision were to ensure the safety and security of the Commissions personnel and the need to act immediately (Report of the Executive Chairman on the activities of the Special Commission established by the Secretary-General pursuant to paragraph 9 (b) (i) of resolution 687 (1991), United Nations Security Council document S/1999/401, 9 April 1999, paragraph 24).
Butler acknowledges that on the very day the inspectors withdrew, the U.S. and the UK proceeded to bomb Iraq, On 16 December 1998, military action was initiated against Iraq by the United States and the United Kingdom (S/1998/1181 and S/1998/1182).
Even though we pulled the inspectors out, cant we send them back in? Of course we can, but the coverage of the wrangling over inspections has repeatedly failed to report one of the main reasons Baghdad prevaricates and is so distrustful of the process: United Nations Security Council Resolution 1284. Up to December 1999, Security Council Resolutions linked a successful weapons inspection and eradication program with the lifting of sanctions. But SCR 1284 made a significant change, deciding that full compliance with UN weapons inspections would lead only to a suspension, and not a lifting, of economic sanctions, and that sanctions could be re-imposed every 120 days on the wishes of any one permanent member of the Security Council (United Nations Security Council Resolution 1284, December 17, 1999).
Saddam knows that Bush and Blair want him out and believes that either one of them could use his Security Council vote to keep sanctions in place indefinitely. The Iraqis, not unreasonably, wonder whether sanctions will ever be lifted as long as Saddam remains in power. Iraqi Foreign Minister Naji Sabri asked the Security Council this very question earlier this year and received no answer.
Additionally, to be successful, weapons inspectors cant be allowed to conduct military spying. The existence of U.S. spies among the inspectors may not be universally acknowledged, but earlier this month the New York Times took it for granted, writing, The reform followed the disclosure that a United States spy on the United Nations team had planted an electronic eavesdropping device in Baghdad that helped guide allied bombing in December 1998 (New York Times, October 2, 2002). The head of UNMOVIC (the successor to UNSCOM) is reportedly aware that the integrity of the weapon inspections system has been damaged by this spying, especially since Iraq learned that the survival of the regime was put at risk when they cooperated.
What we need is a plan that puts teeth in the inspections, preferably one that doesnt perpetuate the brutal sanctions that notably fail to punish Saddam Hussein, but that have caused enormous suffering and inexcusable deaths in the hundreds of thousands. What we dont need is for the U.S. and UK to become increasingly belligerent, leaving Saddam convinced that he must react with deadly vengeance.
When an all-stick, no-carrot policy fails to work, it is dimwitted to propose as the only alternative a much bigger stick. This is a hysterical approach, utterly devoid of any sense of proportion or justice. It urges us to rain bombs down on innocent heads in order to stop a hypothetical future attack based on flimsy evidence. We need effective weapons eradication conducted under the auspices of the UN, not a cruel unilateral policy that leaves in its wake the tragedy of unnecessary death.
M.L. Rantala is a freelance writer and editor of the Evergreen, the newspaper of the Hyde Park Cooperative Society (Chicago). She edited, with Arthur J. Milgram, Cloning: For and Against (Open Court, 1999).
Z Magazine Archive
AnnouncementsLABOR - May 1 is May Day. Workers of the world will celebrate the 124th anniversary of International Worker’s Day. Born out of a call for an 8-hour workday in the United States, this day is an opportunity for all workers to show their solidarity with one another, as well as to renew the call for labor rights.
FARM CONFERENCE - The Farm Conference on Community and Sustainability will be held May 24-26 in Summertown, TN, in partnership with the Fellowship of Intentional Communities. Tour green homes, see sustainable food production, learn about solar installations, alternative education, midwifery, and more.
Contact: Douglas@thefarmcommunity.com; http://www.thefarmcommunity.com/.
PALESTINE - The Conference of the Palestinian Shatat in North American will be held June 3-5 in Vancouver. The conference will examine the future of the Palestinian liberation movement.
Contact: email@example.com; http://www.palestinianconference.org/.
LABOR - The Pacific Northwest Labor History Association’s 45th annual conference will be held May 3-5, in Portland, OR. This year’s theme is Labor Under Attack: Learning from the Past and Preparing for the Future. A call for presentations, workshops and papers is currently underway.
Contact: PNLHA, 27920 68th Ave. East, Graham, WA 98338; 206-406-2604; PNLHA1@aol.com; http://www3.telus.net.
MARIJUANA - On the first Saturday of May marijuana legalization activists will hold informational and educational events, rallies and marches in over 300 cities around the world.
ECONOMICS - The Union For Radical Political Economics will hold its 39th annual conference May 9-11 in New York City.
RECLAIM THE DREAM - The 2013 Poor People’s Campaign & March from Baltimore to Washington D.C. will be May 11. Communities, schools and unions interested in participating are encouraged to contact the Baltimore People’s Assembly.
Contact: 410-500-2168; 410-218-4835; BaltimorePeoplesAssembly@gmail.com; Southern Christian Leadership Conference of Baltimore and the Baltimore Peoples Power Assembly, 2011 N. Charles St., Baltimore, MD 21218.
MOTHER’S DAY - The 17th Annual Mother’s Day Walk For Peace will be May 12th, in Dorchester, MA. The walk began in 1996 for families who had lost children to violence. The day has become a way for thousands of people to financially support the work of the Louis Brown Peace Institute.
Contact: http://www.ldbpeaceinstitute.org/; http://mothersdaywalk4peace.org/.
NATO 5 - An International Week of Solidarity with the NATO 5 has been called for May 16-21. Supports call on supporters to raise awareness of the NATO 5 and support funds for the defendants on the one-year anniversary of their preemptive arrests.
Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org; https://nato5support.wordpress.com.
MOUNTAINTOP - The 2013 Mountain Justice Summer Activist Training Camp will be held May 19-27 in Damascus, VA. It will be a week of workshops, field trips to view Mountain Top Removal coal mines, direct actions, and service project.
FEMINIST SCI-FI - The feminist science fiction convention WisCon 37 is scheduled for May 24-27 in Madison, WI.
Contact: WisCon, ? SF3, PO Box 1624, Madison, WI 53701; email@example.com; http://www.wiscon.info/.
ANARCHY FEST - A month-long Festival of Anarchy is scheduled for May in Montreal. The festival includes The Montreal Anarchist Bookfair (May 19-20).
Contact: http://www.anarchistbookfair.ca/; http://www.radicalmontreal.com/.
LABOR - The International Labor Rights Forum will present: Down the Supply Chain, Driving Corporate Accountability, on May 22 in Washington, DC. The Labor Rights Awards Ceremony and Reception will honor pioneers in supply chain worker organizing, working solidarity and international labor rights policy.
MULTICULTURE - The 26th annual National Conference on Race & Ethnicity in American Higher Education (NCORE) will take place May 28-June 1, in New Orleans.
Contact: SWCHRS, 3200 Marshall Avenue, Suite 290, Norman, OK 73072; 405-325-3694; firstname.lastname@example.org; www.ncore.ou.edu.
MEDIA - The 2013 Alliance for Community Media Annual Conference will be held May 29-31, in San Francisco, CA. Participants will include educators, community leaders, media professionals, journalists, nonprofit leaders, policymakers and students.
RADIO - The 38th Annual Community Radio Conference is schedule for May 29-June 1, in San Francisco, CA, with discussions and workshops.
Contact: 1101 Pennsylvania Ave. NW, Suite 600, Washington, DC 20004; 202-756-2268; email@example.com; http://www.nfcb.org/.
BRADLEY MANNING - On June 1, a rally will be held at Fort Meade in support of Bradley Manning.
BIKES - Bikes Not Bombs is holding its 24th annual Bike-A-Thon and Green Roots Festival in Boston, MA on June 3, with several bike rides scheduled, music, exhibitors and more.
Contact: Bikes Not Bombs, 284 Amory St., Jamaica Plain, MA 02130; 617-522-0222; firstname.lastname@example.org; www.bikesnotbombs.org.
LEFT FORUM - The 2013 Left Forum will be held June 7-9, at Pace University in New York City.
Contact: 365 Fifth Avenue, CUNY Graduated Center, ? Sociology Dept., New York, NY 10016; http://www.leftforum.org/.
VEGAN FEST - Mad City Vegan Fest will be held in Madison, WI, June 8. The annual event features food, speakers, and exhibitors.
Contact: 122 State Street, Suite 405 B, Madison, WI 53701; email@example.com; http://veganfest.org/.
ADC CONFERENCE - The American-Arab Anti-Discrimination Committee (ADC) holds its annual conference June 13-16, in Washington, DC, with panel discussions and workshops on civil rights, media and other topics.
Contact: 1990 M Street, Suite 610, Washington, DC, 20036; 202-244-2990; firstname.lastname@example.org http://convention.adc.org/.
CUBA/SOCIALISM - A Cuban-North American Dialog on Socialist Renewal and Global Capitalist Crisis will be held in Havana, Cuba, June 16-30. There will be a 5 day Seminar at University of Havana, plus visits to a cooperative, urban garden, community development project, social research centers, and educational & medical institutions.
Contact: email@example.com; http://www.globaljusticecenter.org/.
NETROOTS - The 8th Annual Netroots Nation conference will take place June 20-23 in San Jose, CA. The event features panels, trainings, networking, screenings, and keynotes.
Contact: 164 Robles Way, #276, Vallejo, CA 94591; firstname.lastname@example.org; http://www.netrootsnation.org/.
MEDIA - The 15th annual Allied Media Conference will be held June 20-23, in Detroit.
Contact: 4126 Third Street, Detroit, MI 48201; http://alliedmedia.org/.
GRASSROOTS - The United We Stand Festival will be hosted by Free & Equal, June 22 in Little Rock, Arkansas. The festival aims to reform the electoral process throughout the U.S.
SOCIALISM - The Socialism 2013 Conference is scheduled for June 27-30 in Chicago, featuring talks and panel discussions.
Contact: email@example.com; http://www.socialismconference.org.
LITERACY - The National Association for Media Literacy Education (NAMLE) will hold its conference July 12-13 in Los Angeles under the heading, Intersections: Teaching and Learning Across Media.
Contact: 10 Laurel Hill Drive, Cherry Hill, NJ 08003; http://namle.net/conference/.
IWW - The North American Work People’s College will take place July 12-16 at Mesaba Co-op Park in northern Minnesota. The event will bring together Wobblies from branches across the continent to learn new skills and build One Big Union.
PEACESTOCK - On July 13th, the 11th Annual Peacestock: A Gathering for Peace, will take place at Windbeam Farm in Hager City, WI. The event is a mixture of music, speakers and community for peace. Sponsored by Veterans for Peace.
Contact: Bill Habedank, 1913 Grandview Ave., Red Wing, MN 55066; 651-388-7733; firstname.lastname@example.org; http://www.peacestockvfp.org.
CHILDREN’S DEFENSE - July 15-19, join clergy, seminarians, Christian educators, young adult leaders and other faith-based advocates for children at CDF Haley Farm in Clinton, Tennessee, for five days of spiritual renewal, networking, movement building workshops, and continuing education about the urgent needs of children at the 19th annual Proctor Institute for Child Advocacy Ministry.
Contact: email@example.com; http://www.childrensdefense.org.
ACTIVIST CAMP - Youth Empowered Action (YEA) Camp will have sessions in July and August in Ben Lomond, CA; Portland, OR; Charlton, MA. YEA Camp is designed for activists 12-17 years old who want to make a difference in the world.
Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org; http://yeacamp.org/.
LA RAZA - The annual National Council of La Raza (NCLR) Conference is scheduled for July 18-19 in New Orleans, with workshops, presentations and panel discussions.
Contact: NCLR Headquarters Office, Raul Yzaguirre Building, 1126 16th Street, NW, Washington, DC 20036; 202-785-1670; www.nclr.org.
LABOR - The Eastern Conference For Workplace Democracy: Growing Our Cooperatives, Growing Our Communities, will be held at Drexel University in Philadelphia, PA, July 26-28.
Contact: email@example.com; http://east.usworker.coop/.
WOMEN/LYNNE STEWART- Radical Women is asking for support letters and cards to be sent to Lynne Stewart. Stewart is a civil rights attorney and political prisoner who is currently in jail. She has breast cancer and authorities have denied her request for transfer from her Texas prison to the New York City hospital where she received medical attention during a prior bout of breast cancer. Send messages and cards to: Lynne Stewart 53504-054, Federal Medical Center Carswell, P.O. Box 27137, Fort Worth, TX 76127.
Contact: 747 Polk Street, San Francisco, CA 94109; 415-864-1278; RadicalWomenUS@gmail.com; http://lynnestewart.org/; http://www.radicalwomen.org/.
HAITI/WOMEN - Haiti’s government is considering a legal reform measure that would prohibit and punish all sexual assault, including marital rape. MADRE and the International Campaign to Stop Rape & Gender Violence in Conflict are launching a petition to raise international support for this push to address violence against women in Haiti.
Contact: 121 West 27th Street, #301, New York, NY 10001; 212-627-0444; firstname.lastname@example.org; http://www.madre.org.
SYRIA/MIDDLE EAST - The Middle East Children’s Alliance (MECA) is currently seeking funds to assist more than 200,000 refugees fleeing violence in Syria.
FOLK FESTIVAL - The Falcon Ridge Folk Festival will be held August 2-4, in the Berkshires, NY.
Contact: http://www.falconridgefolk.com/; email@example.com.
WAR RESISTERS - The War Resisters League will hold its 90th anniversary conference, Revolutionary Nonviolence: Building Bridges Across Generations and Communities, August 1-4, at Georgetown University. The event will focus on the U.S.’ long history of antimilitarism.
Contact: 339 Lafayette Street, New York, NY 10012; 212-228-0450; firstname.lastname@example.org; http://www.warresisters.org.
POPULAR ECONOMICS - The Center for Popular Economics is holding its 2013 Summer Institute August 4-9 at Hampshire College in Amherst, MA. No background in economics is needed for this intensive training. This year’s theme is, The Care Economy: Building a Just Economy with a Heart.
Contact: Center for Popular Economics, PO Box 785 Amherst, MA 01004; 413-545-0743; email@example.com; www.populareconomics.org.
VETERANS - Veterans for Peace is holding the 28th annual convention August 6-11 in Madison, WI. This year’s theme is, Power To The Peaceful.
DEMOCRACY - The Democracy Convention will take place August 7-11 in Madison, WI. The convention brings together nine conferences including topics such as media, education, defense, race, environment and others.
MEN - The 38th National Conference on Men & Masculinity: Forging Justice: Creating Safe, Equal and Accountable Communities, presented in partnership with HAVEN, will be held in Detroit, MI, August 8-10.
Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org; http://www.nomas.org/.
OCCUPY - An Occupy National Gathering will be held in Kalamazoo, MI, August 21-25.
Contact: email@example.com; http://occupynationalgathering.net/.
COMMUNITIES - The Communities Conference is a networking and learning opportunity for co-operative or communal lifestyles, with workshops, events and entertainment; scheduled for August 30-September 2 at the Twin Oaks Community in Louisa, Virginia.
LABOR DAY - The 29th annual Bread and Roses Festival, a celebration of the ethnic diversity and labor history of Lawrence, MA, will be held September 2, in honor of the 1912 Bread and Roses Strike. There will be music, dance, poetry, drama, ethnic food, historical demonstrations, walking & trolley tours.
Contact: PO Box 1137, Lawrence, MA 01842; 978-794-1655; http://www.breadandrosesheritage.org/.
OCCUPY WALL STREET - September 17 is the two-year anniversary of the Occupy Wall Street movement. Events are planned in New York City and worldwide.
TEACHERS - The 13th Annual Conference, “Teaching for Social Justice: The Politics of Pedagogy,” will be held October 12 in San Francisco, CA. The free event features workshops, resources, and free childcare.
Contact: 415-676-7844; firstname.lastname@example.org; http://www.t4sj.org/.
HAITI - International Action, which brings clean water and chlorinators to Haiti, seeks office space capable of housing up to six people and their office equipment.
Contact: Zach Bremer, Zbrehmer@haitiwater.org; 202-488-0735; http://www.haitiwater.org/.
MEDIA - The Union for Democratic Communications and Project Censored are sponsoring a joint conference on media democracy, media activism and social justice to be held November 1-3 at the University of San Francisco. Proposals for presentations, workshops and panels from activists and critical scholars are invited.