Mississippi Workers Fight
Palestinian Village Sues
Richard a. Johnson
Z Media Institute Application
Outrageous Gift Offer
Goodbye to Bush Offer
Studs Terkel, 1912-2008
Why We Write About Obama
ON SECOND STREET
Waiting in the Wings
Somalia, the 3rd Front
WAR & PEACE
End of NPT
Marco rosaire Rossi
Holding Bishops Accountable
Eleanor J. Bader
Beyond the Fields
There are no articles.Features
Health Reform Choice
Bribing the "Tribes"
Roberto j. González
Z Offers & Applications
There are no articles.Zaps
NOTE: Z Magazine subscribers and sustainers have access to all Z Magazine articles here and in the archive. The latest Z Magazine articles available to everyone are listed in the Free Articles box at the top of the table of contents, and are starred in the list below. Questions? e-mail Z Magazine Online.
The New Framework & the End of the NPT
On January 30, 1948, just a few hours before his assassination, Mahatma Gandhi answered one of his last—and perhaps most important—questions: "How would you meet the atom bomb...with non-violence?" The question was asked by Margaret Bourke-White, a photojournalist for Life magazine. Gandhi turned Bourke-White's question on its head, demonstrating how the world could not do anything but meet the atomic bomb with non-violence. He explained: "The atomic bomb has deadened the finest feeling that has sustained mankind for the ages. There used to be the so-called laws of war, which made it tolerable. Now we know the naked truth. War knows no law except that of might.... The moral to be legitimately drawn from the supreme tragedy of the bomb is that it will not be destroyed by counter-bombs even as violence cannot be by counter-violence.... Hatred can be overcome only through love."
In the years following Gandhi's death some of his wisdom had been taken up by the international community—albeit cautiously. In 1961 the United Nations General Assembly passed a resolution declaring that the use of nuclear weapons was a violation of the UN Charter. In 1968 the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT)—the definitive legal statement on nuclear non-proliferation—was written. And, in 1996, though not completely outlawing nuclear weapons, the International Court of Justice unanimously decided that there "exists an obligation to pursue in good faith and bring to a conclusion negotiations leading to nuclear disarmament." Despite this progress, nuclear proliferation has continued. On October 8, President Bush signed into law the Indo-U.S. Civilian Nuclear Agreement. Despite the lack of media attention, the agreement has serious implications. Not only could it very well spark a new nuclear arms race, but it has also completely gutted much of the NPT.
After the initial shock of the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945 wore off, many states around the world scrambled to fill the "bomb gap" that was created by the United States. Indeed, in the post-war world, to a large extent, national security itself had been "nuclearized." The ability to make and use nuclear weapons became the pinnacle goal that—if reached—guaranteed a degree of military superiority over one's neighbors. Nuclear weapons were—and still are—the prime instruments of diplomatic intimidation. The threat of nuclear proliferation was so real that in 1962 John F. Kennedy predicted that by 1975 as many as 20 nations would have nuclear weapons.
Fortunately, Kennedy's prediction was wrong and steps were taken to halt nuclear proliferation. The most noticeable example was the drafting of the NPT. Though seriously flawed, the NPT has been universally adopted except by India, Pakistan, and Israel who have refused to sign it. North Korea remains the only country that has withdrawn from the treaty. India's refusal to sign is not without its rationale. It claims that the treaty is biased towards those countries able to attain nuclear weapons prior to 1967—the United States, Russia, Great Britain, France, and China—allowing them to maintain a nuclear monopoly over the rest of the world.
Though the criticism is accurate, nations without nuclear weapons have signed the treaty, acknowledging that the less nuclear weapons in the world the better. And contrary to India's argument about fairness, the number of states that have forsaken nuclear weapons exceeds the number of states that maintain them.
In 1974 India successfully completed operation Smiling Buddha, its first nuclear weapons test. India developed their nuclear weapons from technology that was exchanged with Canada for supposedly peaceful purposes. The test—though widely celebrated in India—was not welcomed by the international community. The United States took a nuclear isolationist position toward India, refusing to exchange technology with the country even if such technology were for peaceful use. The isolation of India may have slowed its nuclear weapons ambitions, but it did not stop them. In 1998 India successfully completed five more nuclear weapons tests at the Pokhran range. During these tests India's underlying ambition to propel itself to superpower status was made clear. Two weeks after India's tests Pakistan completed its own nuclear weapons testing.
For over 30 years U.S. policy has been to isolate India's nuclear programs. However, in June 2005 President Bush announced his New Framework for U.S.-India Defense Relations, replacing isolationism with a policy of engagement, allowing the United States to exchange "dual use" nuclear technologies: technologies that have both peaceful and military potential. According to the Council on Foreign Relations, this New Framework includes "materials and equipment that could be used to enrich uranium or reprocess plutonium, potentially creating the material for nuclear bombs."
By 2007 President Bush and Prime Minister Manmohan Singh finalized a bilateral agreement on nuclear cooperation. Proponents of the deal claimed that the agreement helped integrate India's nuclear program into the non-proliferation community. The new deal allowed the International Atomic Energy Association (IAEA) access to 14 of India's 22 nuclear facilities. However, there was a major loophole that rendered this reform ineffective. Inspections by the IAEA are only over civilian facilities, while the distinction between civilian and military facilities is left to the discretion of the Indian government. As Prime Minister Singh commented, New Delhi "retains the sole right to determine such reactors as civilian.... This means that India will not be constrained in any way in building future nuclear facilities whether civilian or military, as per our national requirements." Without inspections over India's entire operation there is no way to tell if they are actually using the technology for peaceful purposes or to develop nuclear weapons like they did with Canada before 1974.
The most unfortunate aspect of the U.S.-India agreement is the lack of protest by the international community. Despite the fact that the agreement is in violation of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1172, which prohibits the exporting of technology that could "assist programs in India or Pakistan for nuclear weapons," there has been no objection to the deal within the UN. The general director of the IAEA Mohammed El Baradei supports the deal, referring to the agreement as a way to bring India into the non-proliferation community. The Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG), an international consortium of 45 nuclear energy producing nations, also approved the deal by consensus in early September. NSG members went so far as to grant India a "clean waiver" from its rules prohibiting nuclear trade with a country that has not signed the NPT. The only country that has offered any noticeable protest is Pakistan whose prime minister, Yousuf Raza Gilani, sent letters to various international organizations warning that the deal could spark an arms race in Asia.
The lack of dissent on the international level at first seems perplexing. One would expect that countries that would appear to have a strategic interest against India amassing nuclear weapons—like China or Russia—would put up a bigger protest. However, global strategic interest is not the only factor driving the plan. Many countries see the precedent set by the deal as a lucrative opportunity to enrich their own nuclear industries. As Leanor Tomeroe of the Center for Arms Control and Non-Proliferation explained, "The U.S. nuclear industry has pushed hard for the deal.... Japan, Russia, and France will also gain from this because they think more nuclear competition is profitable." Although the deal may put certain countries in Asia at a military disadvantage to India in the short-run, many see themselves being able to catch up quickly based on the new precedent for nuclear exchange. "Other countries will be looking at this deal as a model that will serve their own interest," said David Krieger, president of the Nuclear Age Peace Foundation. "If the United States can do it with India, why not China with Pakistan? Or Russia with Iran? Or Pakistan with Syria?"
The U.S.-India nuclear agreement is both glaringly hypocritical and dangerous. With the invasion of Iraq the Bush Doctrine established the right of preventive war on the condition that a state is developing weapons of mass destruction. The Administration has carried on this doctrine with Iran. President-elect Obama supported taking an aggressive posture with Iran, and indicated no genuine commitment to overturn the Bush Doctrine. Iran has signed the NPT, opened all their facilities to inspections, and received confirmation by the IAEA that they are using their nuclear technology for peaceful purposes. Nevertheless, Iran continues to be threatened and punished for its nuclear program. Meanwhile, India—which has refused to sign the NPT, denies IAEA access to facilities, and has not only developed but tested nuclear weapons—is rewarded with lucrative dual-use nuclear technology. The eagerness that other nations have shown in supporting the U.S.-India deal is a sign that the international arena is heading in a less civil, more aggressive direction. Through prodding by the international nuclear lobby, we may see not an Asian arms race, but a global arms race. If such gruesome speculations become a reality then Gandhi's wisdom becomes a necessity. Our choices are not between war and peace, but between peace and survival.
Marco Rosaire Rossi is a former Olympia, Washington resident and a current student at the University of Peace in Costa Rica.
Z Magazine Archive
AnnouncementsLABOR - May 1 is May Day. Workers of the world will celebrate the 124th anniversary of International Worker’s Day. Born out of a call for an 8-hour workday in the United States, this day is an opportunity for all workers to show their solidarity with one another, as well as to renew the call for labor rights.
FARM CONFERENCE - The Farm Conference on Community and Sustainability will be held May 24-26 in Summertown, TN, in partnership with the Fellowship of Intentional Communities. Tour green homes, see sustainable food production, learn about solar installations, alternative education, midwifery, and more.
Contact: Douglas@thefarmcommunity.com; http://www.thefarmcommunity.com/.
PALESTINE - The Conference of the Palestinian Shatat in North American will be held June 3-5 in Vancouver. The conference will examine the future of the Palestinian liberation movement.
Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org; http://www.palestinianconference.org/.
LABOR - The Pacific Northwest Labor History Association’s 45th annual conference will be held May 3-5, in Portland, OR. This year’s theme is Labor Under Attack: Learning from the Past and Preparing for the Future. A call for presentations, workshops and papers is currently underway.
Contact: PNLHA, 27920 68th Ave. East, Graham, WA 98338; 206-406-2604; PNLHA1@aol.com; http://www3.telus.net.
MARIJUANA - On the first Saturday of May marijuana legalization activists will hold informational and educational events, rallies and marches in over 300 cities around the world.
ECONOMICS - The Union For Radical Political Economics will hold its 39th annual conference May 9-11 in New York City.
RECLAIM THE DREAM - The 2013 Poor People’s Campaign & March from Baltimore to Washington D.C. will be May 11. Communities, schools and unions interested in participating are encouraged to contact the Baltimore People’s Assembly.
Contact: 410-500-2168; 410-218-4835; BaltimorePeoplesAssembly@gmail.com; Southern Christian Leadership Conference of Baltimore and the Baltimore Peoples Power Assembly, 2011 N. Charles St., Baltimore, MD 21218.
MOTHER’S DAY - The 17th Annual Mother’s Day Walk For Peace will be May 12th, in Dorchester, MA. The walk began in 1996 for families who had lost children to violence. The day has become a way for thousands of people to financially support the work of the Louis Brown Peace Institute.
Contact: http://www.ldbpeaceinstitute.org/; http://mothersdaywalk4peace.org/.
NATO 5 - An International Week of Solidarity with the NATO 5 has been called for May 16-21. Supports call on supporters to raise awareness of the NATO 5 and support funds for the defendants on the one-year anniversary of their preemptive arrests.
Contact: email@example.com; https://nato5support.wordpress.com.
MOUNTAINTOP - The 2013 Mountain Justice Summer Activist Training Camp will be held May 19-27 in Damascus, VA. It will be a week of workshops, field trips to view Mountain Top Removal coal mines, direct actions, and service project.
FEMINIST SCI-FI - The feminist science fiction convention WisCon 37 is scheduled for May 24-27 in Madison, WI.
Contact: WisCon, ? SF3, PO Box 1624, Madison, WI 53701; firstname.lastname@example.org; http://www.wiscon.info/.
ANARCHY FEST - A month-long Festival of Anarchy is scheduled for May in Montreal. The festival includes The Montreal Anarchist Bookfair (May 19-20).
Contact: http://www.anarchistbookfair.ca/; http://www.radicalmontreal.com/.
LABOR - The International Labor Rights Forum will present: Down the Supply Chain, Driving Corporate Accountability, on May 22 in Washington, DC. The Labor Rights Awards Ceremony and Reception will honor pioneers in supply chain worker organizing, working solidarity and international labor rights policy.
MULTICULTURE - The 26th annual National Conference on Race & Ethnicity in American Higher Education (NCORE) will take place May 28-June 1, in New Orleans.
Contact: SWCHRS, 3200 Marshall Avenue, Suite 290, Norman, OK 73072; 405-325-3694; email@example.com; www.ncore.ou.edu.
MEDIA - The 2013 Alliance for Community Media Annual Conference will be held May 29-31, in San Francisco, CA. Participants will include educators, community leaders, media professionals, journalists, nonprofit leaders, policymakers and students.
RADIO - The 38th Annual Community Radio Conference is schedule for May 29-June 1, in San Francisco, CA, with discussions and workshops.
Contact: 1101 Pennsylvania Ave. NW, Suite 600, Washington, DC 20004; 202-756-2268; firstname.lastname@example.org; http://www.nfcb.org/.
BRADLEY MANNING - On June 1, a rally will be held at Fort Meade in support of Bradley Manning.
BIKES - Bikes Not Bombs is holding its 24th annual Bike-A-Thon and Green Roots Festival in Boston, MA on June 3, with several bike rides scheduled, music, exhibitors and more.
Contact: Bikes Not Bombs, 284 Amory St., Jamaica Plain, MA 02130; 617-522-0222; email@example.com; www.bikesnotbombs.org.
LEFT FORUM - The 2013 Left Forum will be held June 7-9, at Pace University in New York City.
Contact: 365 Fifth Avenue, CUNY Graduated Center, ? Sociology Dept., New York, NY 10016; http://www.leftforum.org/.
VEGAN FEST - Mad City Vegan Fest will be held in Madison, WI, June 8. The annual event features food, speakers, and exhibitors.
Contact: 122 State Street, Suite 405 B, Madison, WI 53701; firstname.lastname@example.org; http://veganfest.org/.
ADC CONFERENCE - The American-Arab Anti-Discrimination Committee (ADC) holds its annual conference June 13-16, in Washington, DC, with panel discussions and workshops on civil rights, media and other topics.
Contact: 1990 M Street, Suite 610, Washington, DC, 20036; 202-244-2990; email@example.com http://convention.adc.org/.
CUBA/SOCIALISM - A Cuban-North American Dialog on Socialist Renewal and Global Capitalist Crisis will be held in Havana, Cuba, June 16-30. There will be a 5 day Seminar at University of Havana, plus visits to a cooperative, urban garden, community development project, social research centers, and educational & medical institutions.
Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org; http://www.globaljusticecenter.org/.
NETROOTS - The 8th Annual Netroots Nation conference will take place June 20-23 in San Jose, CA. The event features panels, trainings, networking, screenings, and keynotes.
Contact: 164 Robles Way, #276, Vallejo, CA 94591; email@example.com; http://www.netrootsnation.org/.
MEDIA - The 15th annual Allied Media Conference will be held June 20-23, in Detroit.
Contact: 4126 Third Street, Detroit, MI 48201; http://alliedmedia.org/.
GRASSROOTS - The United We Stand Festival will be hosted by Free & Equal, June 22 in Little Rock, Arkansas. The festival aims to reform the electoral process throughout the U.S.
SOCIALISM - The Socialism 2013 Conference is scheduled for June 27-30 in Chicago, featuring talks and panel discussions.
Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org; http://www.socialismconference.org.
LITERACY - The National Association for Media Literacy Education (NAMLE) will hold its conference July 12-13 in Los Angeles under the heading, Intersections: Teaching and Learning Across Media.
Contact: 10 Laurel Hill Drive, Cherry Hill, NJ 08003; http://namle.net/conference/.
IWW - The North American Work People’s College will take place July 12-16 at Mesaba Co-op Park in northern Minnesota. The event will bring together Wobblies from branches across the continent to learn new skills and build One Big Union.
PEACESTOCK - On July 13th, the 11th Annual Peacestock: A Gathering for Peace, will take place at Windbeam Farm in Hager City, WI. The event is a mixture of music, speakers and community for peace. Sponsored by Veterans for Peace.
Contact: Bill Habedank, 1913 Grandview Ave., Red Wing, MN 55066; 651-388-7733; email@example.com; http://www.peacestockvfp.org.
CHILDREN’S DEFENSE - July 15-19, join clergy, seminarians, Christian educators, young adult leaders and other faith-based advocates for children at CDF Haley Farm in Clinton, Tennessee, for five days of spiritual renewal, networking, movement building workshops, and continuing education about the urgent needs of children at the 19th annual Proctor Institute for Child Advocacy Ministry.
Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org; http://www.childrensdefense.org.
ACTIVIST CAMP - Youth Empowered Action (YEA) Camp will have sessions in July and August in Ben Lomond, CA; Portland, OR; Charlton, MA. YEA Camp is designed for activists 12-17 years old who want to make a difference in the world.
Contact: email@example.com; http://yeacamp.org/.
LA RAZA - The annual National Council of La Raza (NCLR) Conference is scheduled for July 18-19 in New Orleans, with workshops, presentations and panel discussions.
Contact: NCLR Headquarters Office, Raul Yzaguirre Building, 1126 16th Street, NW, Washington, DC 20036; 202-785-1670; www.nclr.org.
LABOR - The Eastern Conference For Workplace Democracy: Growing Our Cooperatives, Growing Our Communities, will be held at Drexel University in Philadelphia, PA, July 26-28.
Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org; http://east.usworker.coop/.
WOMEN/LYNNE STEWART- Radical Women is asking for support letters and cards to be sent to Lynne Stewart. Stewart is a civil rights attorney and political prisoner who is currently in jail. She has breast cancer and authorities have denied her request for transfer from her Texas prison to the New York City hospital where she received medical attention during a prior bout of breast cancer. Send messages and cards to: Lynne Stewart 53504-054, Federal Medical Center Carswell, P.O. Box 27137, Fort Worth, TX 76127.
Contact: 747 Polk Street, San Francisco, CA 94109; 415-864-1278; RadicalWomenUS@gmail.com; http://lynnestewart.org/; http://www.radicalwomen.org/.
HAITI/WOMEN - Haiti’s government is considering a legal reform measure that would prohibit and punish all sexual assault, including marital rape. MADRE and the International Campaign to Stop Rape & Gender Violence in Conflict are launching a petition to raise international support for this push to address violence against women in Haiti.
Contact: 121 West 27th Street, #301, New York, NY 10001; 212-627-0444; email@example.com; http://www.madre.org.
SYRIA/MIDDLE EAST - The Middle East Children’s Alliance (MECA) is currently seeking funds to assist more than 200,000 refugees fleeing violence in Syria.
FOLK FESTIVAL - The Falcon Ridge Folk Festival will be held August 2-4, in the Berkshires, NY.
Contact: http://www.falconridgefolk.com/; firstname.lastname@example.org.
WAR RESISTERS - The War Resisters League will hold its 90th anniversary conference, Revolutionary Nonviolence: Building Bridges Across Generations and Communities, August 1-4, at Georgetown University. The event will focus on the U.S.’ long history of antimilitarism.
Contact: 339 Lafayette Street, New York, NY 10012; 212-228-0450; email@example.com; http://www.warresisters.org.
POPULAR ECONOMICS - The Center for Popular Economics is holding its 2013 Summer Institute August 4-9 at Hampshire College in Amherst, MA. No background in economics is needed for this intensive training. This year’s theme is, The Care Economy: Building a Just Economy with a Heart.
Contact: Center for Popular Economics, PO Box 785 Amherst, MA 01004; 413-545-0743; firstname.lastname@example.org; www.populareconomics.org.
VETERANS - Veterans for Peace is holding the 28th annual convention August 6-11 in Madison, WI. This year’s theme is, Power To The Peaceful.
DEMOCRACY - The Democracy Convention will take place August 7-11 in Madison, WI. The convention brings together nine conferences including topics such as media, education, defense, race, environment and others.
MEN - The 38th National Conference on Men & Masculinity: Forging Justice: Creating Safe, Equal and Accountable Communities, presented in partnership with HAVEN, will be held in Detroit, MI, August 8-10.
Contact: email@example.com; http://www.nomas.org/.
OCCUPY - An Occupy National Gathering will be held in Kalamazoo, MI, August 21-25.
Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org; http://occupynationalgathering.net/.
COMMUNITIES - The Communities Conference is a networking and learning opportunity for co-operative or communal lifestyles, with workshops, events and entertainment; scheduled for August 30-September 2 at the Twin Oaks Community in Louisa, Virginia.
LABOR DAY - The 29th annual Bread and Roses Festival, a celebration of the ethnic diversity and labor history of Lawrence, MA, will be held September 2, in honor of the 1912 Bread and Roses Strike. There will be music, dance, poetry, drama, ethnic food, historical demonstrations, walking & trolley tours.
Contact: PO Box 1137, Lawrence, MA 01842; 978-794-1655; http://www.breadandrosesheritage.org/.
OCCUPY WALL STREET - September 17 is the two-year anniversary of the Occupy Wall Street movement. Events are planned in New York City and worldwide.
TEACHERS - The 13th Annual Conference, “Teaching for Social Justice: The Politics of Pedagogy,” will be held October 12 in San Francisco, CA. The free event features workshops, resources, and free childcare.
Contact: 415-676-7844; email@example.com; http://www.t4sj.org/.
HAITI - International Action, which brings clean water and chlorinators to Haiti, seeks office space capable of housing up to six people and their office equipment.
Contact: Zach Bremer, Zbrehmer@haitiwater.org; 202-488-0735; http://www.haitiwater.org/.
MEDIA - The Union for Democratic Communications and Project Censored are sponsoring a joint conference on media democracy, media activism and social justice to be held November 1-3 at the University of San Francisco. Proposals for presentations, workshops and panels from activists and critical scholars are invited.